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题名: 巴豆藤的植物地理学研究
作者: 许瑾
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2008-06-04
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 彭华
关键词: 巴豆藤 ; 分布区变化 ; 古夷平面 ; 谱系地理学 ; 中国特有属
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 巴豆藤属(Craspedolobium Harms)属豆科(Fabaceae)灰毛豆族(Tephrosieae),为一单型属,只有巴豆藤Craspedolobium schochii Harms 1种。该属主要分布在云南省,长期以来被认为是中国特有属,在确定云南的区系性质方面起了重要作用。通过对巴豆藤分布区的深入调查,再次论证了其中国特有性质,揭示了其中国特有属性质的改变;分析了其分布的地理高程与云南古夷平面之间的关系,初步发现它们的分布都具有随纬度升高,海拔高度也随之升高的特征;通过谱系地理学的初步研究,探讨了巴豆藤的遗传多样性、遗传结构和地理分化。主要结果如下: 1. 生物学习性与传粉初步观察 巴豆藤为灌木状藤本或攀援状藤本,常长在林缘、路旁,有时发育为大型的木质藤本穿梭于林间。分布的海拔高度为700─2500 m。总状花序着生于枝端叶腋,花紫红色。荚果腹缝具狭翅,瓣裂。种子圆肾形,扁平。单花持续期为1.5─2.5天。主要访花昆虫有四种,均属于膜翅目(Hymenoptera)。 2. 巴豆藤中国特有属性质的再论证 通过查阅大量文献和野外调查,证实巴豆藤属分布已深入到缅甸、泰国、老挝,表明该属已不再是中国特有属。中国植物区系中的中国特有属对于中国大陆腹地的类群而言是相对稳定的,但对于分布于云南的类群则需要具体分析。在对周边国家的植物区系调查不够深入、彻底的情况下,某些类群的特有概念会有时效的限制,同样,对其他一些特有属的分析也支持这样的判断。如何更好地分析此类情况,需要加强同周边国家的科技合作,加大植物区系调查的力度,深入查阅文献,明确这部分现认为是中国特有的属其可能的南界后方可定论。 在云南一些半湿润常绿阔叶林中,巴豆藤作为其中的大型木质藤本穿梭其间,说明以前认为此类植被中缺少大型藤本植物的观点不具普遍性。云南高原无疑是其生态中心,也可能是其多样化中心。 3. 巴豆藤的分布与云南古夷平面的相关性 按照一般规律,随着纬度的升高,物种分布的海拔高度将随之降低。而巴豆藤的分布却与之相反。巴豆藤的分布与云南残留的古夷平面的分布相似,即随着纬度的升高,其分布的海拔高度也随之升高。它们之间的区别在于云南古夷平面分布的趋势线的仰角略大于巴豆藤分布的趋势线的仰角,对此,我们的初步解释是相对于剧烈的地质运动而言,物种的适应能力总是相对滞后的,并且物种的分布也受到其生长特性的制约。从它们之间的相关性,可以推断出巴豆藤的分布与古夷平面的抬升是同步的,而高原面的解体又使得它的分布在任何地理区域均有了高程变化的范围,如在永仁方山,其分布海拔可从1950 m到2330 m。 4. 谱系地理学初步研究 通过选用cpDNA基因间区atpB-rbcL对巴豆藤24个居群共123个个体进行了谱系地理分析,得到了以下结果:1)巴豆藤具有较高的遗传分化系数(GST=0.832, NST=0.871),遗传多样性处于平均水平(HT=0.663)。在24个居群中共检测到7个单倍型。以昆明为中心的滇中地区,集中了4个单倍型。该地区很可能是巴豆藤的多样化中心。2)以“田中线”为界,东北部居群和西南部居群的遗传结构差异较大,东北部居群具有所有的单倍型,西南部居群只具有3个单倍型。古夷平面的抬升幅度南北不等量;北部的安宁河谷地区遭受第四纪冰期的影响;黔滇桂地区的种系分化程度强,可能是造成这种差异的三个主要原因。3)根据单倍型的地理分布格局,巴豆藤种内的分化与“田中线”不具严格的相关性。
英文摘要: The genus Craspedolobium (Tephrosieae, Fabaceae), with one species C. schochii Harms, is widely distributed in Yunnan, China. It was ever thought to be a Chinese endemic genus in the past decades, and played an important role in indicating the characteristics of Yunnan Plateau. However, according to the latest distribution data, Craspedolobium can not be considered a genus endemic to China any longer. After analyzing the relationship between the distribution of C. schochii and that of ancient planation surface in Yunnan, we found out that there is a correlation between them. In order to test its genetic diversity, genetic structure, and geographical differentiation, phylogeographical analysis based on DNA sequences was carried. The main results are as follows: 1. Biological habits and preliminary observation of pollination C. schochii is a sun-adapted shrubby liana or small woody liana with altitudes ranging from 700 to 2500 m, and usually grows in the edge of forest and on roadsides. Sometimes it is noticeable to be a large woody liana in the forest. Flowers are purple or violet and glomerulate in mostly elongated racemes which are terminal and axillary near the tip of branches. Pod is dehiscent with a narrow wing on the ventral suture. Seeds are kidney-shaped and flat. The anthesis of one flower is 1.5─2.5 d. Four insects observed as flower-visitors are all in the Order Hymenoptera. 2. Unacceptability of its endemism to China According to the latest literatures and our field investigations, Craspedolobium can not be accepted as a genus endemic to China any more. Its distribution has reached southwards to Burma, Thailand and Laos. The circumscription of plant genera endemic to China from the upcountry of China is rather stable .But as for the taxa distributed in Yunnan, especially those reached the national boundary, their endemism to China is questionable and needs to be carefully recognized. Some genera in such cases were temporarily recognized as endemic to China because of no distribution data available from neighbouring countries. The endemism of such Chinese plants is not unchangeable when new distribution data are available. Therefore, it is of great necessity to strengthen the cooperation with the neighboring countries for further investigations on the vegetation and flora in these regions. C. schochii was found as a kind of large woody liana in some semi-humid evergreen broad-leaved forests in Yunnan, which is not consistent with the viewpoint in the past. Undoubtedly, Yunnan plateau is “Ecological Center” of C. schochii, and might be its “Diversity Center” as well. 3. Correlation between the distribution of C. schochii and Yunnan Ancient Planation Surface It is well known that with the increase of latitude at which one species is distributed, the altitude will decrease. However, for C. schochii, the fact is inconsistent with this. There was a positive correlation between the latitude and altitude at which C. schochii is located, just like the distribution of Yunnan Ancient Planation Surface. So we considered that there is a correlation between the distribution of C. schochii and that of Yunnan Ancient Planation Surface. The difference between them is that the elevation of the Yunnan Ancient Planation Surface’s distribution trendline is larger than that of C. schochii. Our explanation for this phenomenon is that the distribution of species is determined by its ability and the way of adaption to the environment, moreover the adaption of plant always lags the geological change. Since the distribution pattern and the relationship with latitude and altitude of them are similar, we concluded that the distribution of C. schochii and the uplift of Yunnan Ancient Planation Surface are synchronous. On the other hand, the disintegration of Planation Surface has led to the altitude range at which C. schochii is distributed in any region where it appears. For example, the altitude at which it is distributed could be from 1950 m to 2330 m in Fangshan of Yongren, Yunnan. 4. Preliminary phylogeography Based on atpB-rbcL sequence data of 123 individuals from 24 populations of C. schochii, the phylogeographical analysis was carried out, and the results are as follows: 1) C. schochii has high genetic differentiation (GST=0.832, NST=0.871) and moderate genetic diversity (HT=0.663). 7 haplotypes were found in 24 populations, and there are 4 haplotypes in Central Yunnan, so the region may be “Diversity Center” of C. schochii. 2) When considering “Tanaka Line” as a boundary, there is a discrepancy of genetic structure on the two sides of the line. The Northeast populations have all the haplotypes, whereas the Southwest popultions have only 3 haplotypes. The factors which caused this discrepancy are: First, the uplifting of Planation Surface was greater in the North than in the South; second, the populations in Anninghe River valleys were affected by the Quaternary Glaciation; third, Dian-Qian-Gui region is noted for species richness and high speciation. 3) Based on the distribution of haplotype, the differentiation within C. schochii has no strict correlation with “Tanaka Line”.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/326
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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巴豆藤的植物地理学研究.许瑾[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2008.20-25
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