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题名: 云南省黄连山云雾林附生维管植物多样性与空间分布格局
作者: 杨洁
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2008-05-26
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 税玉民
关键词: 附生维管植物 ; 生物多样性 ; 空间分布格局 ; 云雾林 ; 黄连山 ; 云南
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 附生植物(Epiphyte)是根系附着于其它植物活体或残体上生长,生命活动不从宿主载体吸取营养,利用雨露、空气中的水汽及有限的腐殖质为生的一类植物体,是热带、亚热带山地湿性森林生态系统的重要组成部分。由于特殊的生长环境,附生植物在森林生态系统多样性保护、生态系统功能维护等方面具有重要作用。 我国有关附生植物的研究目前还不多,特别是对热带森林附生植物的研究还是空白。黄连山位于云南省南部,邻近中南半岛腹地,黄连山云雾林地理位置为东经102°17′02″-102°17′36″,北纬22°53′56″-22°53′64″,最高海拔1820m,最低海拔1760m,占地总面积约为5ha。本研究论文对云南省黄连山云雾林林冠附生维管植物的多样性和空间分布特征进行了初步研究,并比较分析黄连山云雾林中附生维管植物与世界各地森林中的附生维管植物在种类组成和空间分布上的异同。研究结果如下: 1、黄连山云雾林中附生维管植物种类较丰富,占整个地区维管植物的20.7%,在整个地区的物种多样性中占有重要地位。233株宿主上共收集到附生维管植物34科,80属,135种及16变种(亚种)。其中附生种子植物23科,54属,97种及14变种(亚种);附生蕨类植物11科,26属,38种及2变种(亚种)。附生维管植物中,双子叶植物共有59种,占附生维管植物总数量的39.1%;附生蕨类、附生兰科植物和除兰科外的单子叶植物分别有40种、45种和7种,分别占附生维管植物总数量的26.5%、29.8%和4.6%。从附生维管植物科的组成来看,兰科植物最丰富,共有45种,约占全部维管植物物种数量的30%;其次为蕨类的水龙骨科植物,共有19种,所含种数占总种数的12.5%。附生种子植物的Shannon–Wiener 指数和Simpson指数分别为4.15和0.98;附生蕨类植物的Shannon–Wiener 指数和Simpson指数分别为3.32和0.95。 2、附生维管植物空间分布多样。宿主不同高度附生的维管植物数量和生长型不同,有明显分层现象。林冠层主要附生种子植物,林冠层以下主要以附生蕨类植物为主。林冠中层的附生维管植物远远多于宿主主干和林冠上层,且林冠内附生植物多于林冠外侧。不同种宿主上附生植物种类与宿主种类之间的相关性不明显,在研究区域内没有表现出对宿主种类专一的附属性。少数附生植物只出现于个别宿主上,种类不同的宿主,附生维管植物的相似范围在43.3%-87.5%之间。 3、附生维管植物物种数量与宿主径级和宿主冠幅存在明显相关。附生维管植物的物种数量随着宿主径级的增加,冠幅的增大而增多。但是研究中发现某些宿主,当胸径超过100cm,附生维管植物的物种数量有略微下降的趋势。 4、初步分析了云南热带湿性云雾林中附生维管植物宿主的最少取样数量。附生维管植物物种数量随着取样宿主的增加而增多,根据种-宿主曲线,当取样的宿主达到72株以上时,附生维管植物的物种数量趋于稳定。在对热带云雾林附生维管植物取样调查时,要取得较完整数据(80%的物种),至少要调查42-45棵中等径级(DBH≥30)以上的宿主。 5、研究地区附生种子植物地理成分具有鲜明的热带性,并与中南半岛紧密联系。本区23科中,热带性质的科有13科,占总科数的87%(不计世界广布科),温带性质的科有2科,占总科数的13%,热带性质明显;54属中,热带性质的属有38属,占总属数的70.4%(不计世界广布属),温带性质的属有13属,占总属数的29.6%;97种及14变种(亚种)中,热带性质的种有68种,占总种数的62.2%(不计世界广布种),温带性质的种有41种,占总种数的37.8%。研究地区附生种子植物从地理成分来看,属于热带北缘性质,与热带的联系主要以热带亚洲成分为主,在热带亚洲成分的三个亚型中,以中南半岛到华南分布的比例最高(7.2%)。科的组成与新热带地区附生维管植物科的组成有相似之处,但因为热带成分和温带成分在此交融,物种组成又与热带地区有一定出入。 黄连山云雾林中附生维管植物种类丰富,在整个云雾林植物的多样性中所占比例较大,在森林生态系统的物种保存、养分循环、水循环、森林生态系统的稳定方面有重要作用。以后的工作中应加强林冠附生植物的研究和保护,以便全面了解和更好的保护森林生态系统。
英文摘要: Epiphytes are described as “plants attached to another plant, not growing parasitically upon it but merely using it for support.” Epiphytes play an important role in biodiversity, sustainability, and water and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. However, few investigating of epiphytes have been conducted in China. To help bridge this gap, we quantitatively evaluated the diversity and spatial distribution of vascular epiphytes in the cloud forest on Huanglian Mt., Yunnan Province, China. We compared the differences of composition and spatial distribution of vascular epiphytes with those form other tropical forests in the world. The results are as following: 1. There is high species diversity of the vascular epiphytes in the cloud forest of Huanglian Mountain. Based on sample data from 233 host trees, 135 vascular epiphytes species and 16 varieties (or subspecies) belonging to 80 genera and 34 families were found. Of which, 97 species and 14 varieties (or subspecies) were seed plants belonging to 54 genera and 23 families, 38 species and 2 varieties (or subspecies) were ferns belonging to 26 genera and 11 families. For the vascular epiphytes: dicots accounted for 39.1% of the species, orchids 26.5%, ferns 29.8% and non-orchid monocots 4.6%. As has been found in other epiphyte inventories, Orchidaceae account for the greatest number of species followed by Polypodiaceae. The Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index are 4.15 and 0.98 for epiphytic seed plant, and 3.32 and 0.95 for epiphytic fern species. 2. There are various types of epiphytes on different heights of the host trees. Ferns are more common close to the base of host trees, but seed plant epiphytes often dominate the canopies. There are far more epiphytic vascular plants in mid-canopy than in the upper canopy and the base of host trees, and the diversity of epiphytes of the mid-canopy compared to the out canopy is high. There was no significant correlation between epiphyte species and hosts, although a small number of epiphytes species only occurred on some specific trees. The kinds of vascular epiphytes vary in different host tree species, and the relationship between vascular epiphytes and hosts in the study area showed no specificity. Only minorities epiphytes seen in the individual host tree, the host tree of different types, epiphytic vascular plants similar to the range of 43.3%-87.5%. 3. A significant positive relationship was found between host diameter, host crown size, and number of epiphytes. Our surveys showed that species diversity of epiphytes increased with the diameter of host trees and the size of the host crown. However, this increase reached a peak so that, when the d.b.h. of host trees was greater than 100 cm, some types of vascular epiphytes have a slightly downward trend. 4. The species-host trees curve of the epiphytes community were formulated based on the investigation. We found a positive relationship between cumulative number of host trees and epiphyte diversity. The minimum sampling for cloud forest epiphytes was calculated to be 42-45 host trees. 5. The floristic characteristic of epiphytic seed plants in the cloud forest of Huanglian Mt. is tropical, but it is also influenced by temperate elements. Within the total of 38 families in the region, tropical families are 13 (87% of the families, excluding cosmopolitan families), temperate families are 2 (13% of the total families). The number of tropical families is greater than the temperate families. Within the 54 genera, tropical genera are 38 (70.4% of the genera, excluding cosmopolitan genera), temperate genera are 13 (25.1% of the total genera). Within the 97 species and 14 varieties (or subspecies), tropical species are 68 (62.2% of the species, excluding cosmopolitan species), temperate species are 41(37.8% of the total species). In a word, tropical Asian distribution pattern are the richest, and the seed plant epiphyte flora has the transitional character of tropical to subtropical. The flora of the region is closely linked with the flora of the Indo-China regions, and the family composition is similar to neotropical forests epiphyte inventories. Epiphytic species in cloud forest of Huanglian Mt. are abundant, and theplant diversity of epiphytes accounts for a significant proportion of the forest’s species. Epiphytes have an important role in nutrient cycling, water cycling, and the stability of forest ecosystems. Additional research is needed on the canopy epiphytes in terms of the biomass and ecosystem functions to fully understand and better protect forest ecosystems.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/320
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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云南省黄连山云雾林附生维管植物多样性与空间分布格局.杨洁[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2008.20-25
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