中国块菌属的分类与系统学
其他题名Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the genus Tuber in China(Pezizales, Ascomycetes, Ascomycota)
陈娟
学位类型博士
导师刘培贵
2007-05-28
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点昆明植物研究所
学位专业植物学
关键词块菌属 形态学 分子系统学 菌根 地理分布 中国
摘要本文在对我国特别是西南地区块菌属(Tuber)资源调查的基础上,综合经典分类学及电镜扫描技术、分子系统学及生态学等多学科的研究手段,对比研究了欧洲和北美的部分块菌属标本,对产自我国的297份该属标本(包括大部分种的模式标本)进行了观察和分析,订正了我国已报道的块菌属种类,澄清了分类学上存在的混乱,解决了有争议的亚洲黑块菌类群间的系统关系问题并探讨了块菌属下种间的系统亲缘关系。主要研究结果如下: 综合形态学和分子系统学的证据将块菌属划分为四个新组,即勃氏块菌组Tuber sect. Borchii、块菌组Tuber sect. Tuber、刺-网孢块菌组Tuber sect. Spinoreticulatum及夏块菌组Tuber sect. Aestivum,给出了属下分组及组内分种检索表。 鉴定确认分布在我国的块菌属种类有16种(西南地区分布有12种),包括两个新种即脐凹块菌T. umbilicatum Juan Chen & P.G. Liu和阔孢块菌T. latisporum Juan Chen & P.G. Liu;2个新纪录种,即凹陷块菌T. excavatum Vittad.和波氏球孢块菌变种Tuber borchii var. sphaerosperma Malencon;归并了5个种,即中国块菌T. sinense K. Tao & B. Liu、台湾块菌T. formosanum H.T. Hu、喜马拉雅块菌T. himalayense B.C. Zhang & Minter都作为印度块菌T. indicum Cooke & Massee的异名,拟凹陷块菌T. pseudoexcavatum Y. Wang et al.作为假喜马拉雅块菌T. pseudohimalayense G. Moreno et al.的异名,屑状块菌T. furfuraceum H.T. Hu作为会东块菌T. huidongense Y. Wang的异名;排除了阿地块菌T. asa Tul. & C. Tul.、喜栎块菌T. dryophilum Tul. & C. Tul.及臭块菌T. foetidum Vittad.在我国的分布;另外有5个种,即斑点块菌T. maculatum Vittad.、短毛块菌T. puberulum Berk. & Br.、巨孢块菌T. gigantosporum Y. Wang & Z.P. Li、西藏块菌T. xizangense A.S. Xu及少孢块菌T. oligospermum (Tul. & C. Tul) Trappe因没有观察到标本而存疑,有待进一步研究和证实。 基于nrDNA-LSU、ITS及-tubulin三个序列的单独与联合分析,结果发现块菌属下各类群的系统关系与子囊果表面特征(颜色,具有疣突、绒毛,粗糙或光滑)及子囊孢子的特征(大小、形状、表面纹饰等)有很强的相关性,强烈支持块菌属下组的划分。分析结果也表明经典分类中所谓的“白块菌类”(white truffle)不是单系起源的。但是这并不会降低子囊果表面特征在实际分类鉴定中作为一个重要的分类性状的价值。此外,分子系统学证据也支持上述异名处理,提示块菌属种内变异很大,因此在确定重要分类特征的变异范围和定义种的分类界限时应综合形态和分子生物学的证据。 通过野外调查补充了印度块菌的菌根形态学及生态学资料,勾画了块菌属的世界及我国的分布图。
其他摘要Taxonomy and phylogenetic relationship of the genus Tuber were studied on the basis of extensive field investigation, the classical taxonomy and molecular systematics which was based on three nuclear DNA regions, i.e., LSU, ITS and -tubulin. As well as ecological observation were used for the identification and comprehensive analysis of the genus. Major results of the dissertation were summarized as follows: The proofs derived from morphological characters and molecular data supported that the genus Tuber was divided into four new sections, that is, Tuber sect. Borchii, Tuber sect. Tuber, Tuber sect. Spinoreticulatum and Tuber sect. Aestivum. Keys to sections and species were provided. 297 specimens collected from China (including holotype specimens of eight species) and 66 specimens from Europe and North America were examinated carefully. As a result, 16 species of Tuber were indentified and confirmed to occur in China, including two new species (namely T. umbilicatum Juan Chen & P.G. Liu and T. latisporum Juan Chen & P.G. Liu) and two new recodes from China (T. excavatum Vittad. and T. borchii var. sphaerosperma Malencon). Three species were excluded from China, they are T. asa Tul. & C. Tul., T. dryophilum Tul. & C. Tul. and T. foetidum Vittad. Five species were still in doubtful and needed to further confirmation due to the unavailability of specimens, they are T. maculatum Vittad., T. puberulum Berk. & Br., T. gigantosporum Y. Wang & Z.P. Li, T. xizangense A.S. Xu and T. oligospermum (Tul. & C. Tul) Trappe. The debatable phylogenetic relationship between the Asia black truffles, such as T. sinense K. Tao & B. Liu, T. himalayense B.C. Zhang & Minter, T. indicum Cooke & Massee, T. pseudohimalayense G. Moreno et al. and T. formosanum H.T. Hu, was analyzed and discussed. Such a clarification would help conservation biology. Examination of holotype and isotype specimens of the above species and their analysis of DNA sequence data supported that T. sinense, T. himalayense and T. formosanum were as synonum to T. indicum. Tuber pseudoexcavatum Y. Wang et al. was as synonum to T. pseudohimalayense. In addition, T. furfuraceum H.T. Hu and T. huidongense Y. Wang were same species. Molecular phylogeny of the Tuber was elucidated using nrDNA-LSU, ITS and -tubulin. The results implied that the “white truffle” in traditional taxonomy was not monophyletic. The phylogenic relationships of Tuber are corresponding strongly to the characters of ascomata and the ornament of ascospores and it is supported that the genus Tuber was divied into four new sections. Based on field investigation, morphological charaters of ecotmycorrhizae and ecology of T. indicum and its geographic ditributional patterns as well have been described and illustated.
页数134
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/294
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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陈娟. 中国块菌属的分类与系统学[D]. 昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2007.
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