|其他摘要||Jingpo people as a transboundary forest-dwelling ethnic group are mainly distributed in the mountain areas of northern Myanmar, Assam district of India and western Yunnan of China. Over their long history of surviving in the forest, they engaged themselves with rich knowledge coping with nature. Along with socio-economic development and progresses of modernization, their traditionally practiced slash-and-burn farming system is changing towards a more settled agriculture, therefore, their traditional knowledge favoring resource management have been threatened and will gradually disappear from the society.
This study investigates the characteristics, values and issues of traditional ecological knowledge of Jingpo people in China through ethnobotanical approaches. Methodologies for thestudy include agroecosystem analysis, historical literature review, and a series of field works including semi-structured interview, questionnaire survey and participation & observation, as well as field methods used in ecological studies.
It has been found out that the Jingpo people in the study area have accumulated rich knowledge about wild plants and mountain ecosystem management.1) The cosmo-vision of Jingpo people illustrates that they have been living harmoniously with nature. Their ancestors had clear concepts of “forest, plants and gathering” in mind, while recognizing, respecting and obeying the nature, some particular plants were endowed with special meanings and feelings, therefore priority of conservation were given to those particular plants, which reflects their long history of knowing and using wild plants; 2) Presently, traditional gathering and using wild plant resources still plays an important role in the living of Jingpo people. According to investigation, 174 species of wild plants in the study area are being used by local people, mostly as vegetable and herbal medicine, major parts of plants include young leaves, shoots, stems/branches etc., traditional uses of wild plants did not impose series damages to wild plants in the vicinity; 3) Use of wild plants has been changing from gathering to cultivation. Cultivation of rare species, e.g. rattan, has been proved to be an efficient way to manage wild plant resources and to generate income by Jingpo households; the wild plants cultivated in their home gardens have a share about 50% of the total number of plants. 4) The “slash-and-burn” farming system practiced by Jingpo people is a relatively maturated skill to manage mountain ecosystem which incorporates fire control, intercropping, and use of none-legume nitrogen fixing tree species to enrich soil fertility etc.; 5) Slash-and-burn farming triggers up the dynamic changes in land use and land cover, due to policy changes, traditional farming activities tends to concentrate near settlement and road in lower altitude areas; To meet the changes of land use policy, their traditional farming skills has been used flexibly, and switched from food production to cash crop production.
The traditional ecological knowledge possessed by Jingpo people were resulted from the interaction between people and nature over the history that still play an important role in their economic and social activities. As the paces of modernization progresses, these valuable knowledge will shrink or diminish in future.
Based on the above findings, it is suggested：1) To further study the traditional ecological knowledge systems of different ethnic groups, including knowledge on NTFP, etc.; 2) Sustainable development of regional economy should be based on scientific ideology, while knowledge held by indigenous people could be a potential reference; 3) Consolidate ethnic identity, help ethnic people with their health care, basic education, and explore the development of ethno-medicine and ethnic food culture; 4) Involve local people in nature conservation, co-management mechanism will meet the needs for both rural community and nature reserve management; 5) Try to experiment a nature reserve or field museum for “slash-and-burn farming system”, which will illustrate the specific ethnoecological and ethnobotanical knowledge, therefore, safeguarding the knowledge system before it diminishes, it will also become a destination of scholars and visitors.|