中国科学院昆明植物研究所机构知识库
Advanced  
KIB OpenIR  > 昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文  > 学位论文
题名: 云南德宏景颇族传统生态知识的民族植物学研究
作者: 胡华斌
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2006-02-23
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 裴盛基
关键词: 景颇族 ; 民族植物学 ; 传统生态学知识
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 景颇族是一个跨境而居的山地森林民族,主要分布在我国云南德宏、缅甸北部和印度阿萨姆的热带和亚热带地区。该民族有着悠久的历史文化和丰富的传统知识,随着社会经济的发展和现代化进程的加快,正逐渐由游耕农业向定耕农业发展,有利于资源保护和利用的传统知识体系面临消失的威胁。 本研究运用民族植物学的方法,结合农业生态系统分析手段,在研究历史文献的基础上,利用半结构访谈、问卷调查、参与观察和生态学调查方法,对我国景颇族集中分布的典型地区从民族植物学的角度分析了该民族传统生态知识的特征、价值和当前面临的问题,并提出了利用和保护景颇族传统生态知识的若干建议。 研究表明,景颇族在长期的生产实践中,逐步形成了丰富的利用野生植物资源和管理山地生态系统的知识和实践经验。(1)景颇族传统的生态观孕育了人与自然的和谐关系。在景颇族先民的思维里已经有了森林、植物、采集等比较明显的概念;人们在认识、敬畏、顺应自然的过程中,对特定的植物赋予特殊的含义对于保护这些植物起到了关键性的作用,是该民族长期认识和利用植物的反映。(2)景颇族对野生植物的采集和传统利用,在现实生活中仍然占有重要地位。研究地区景颇族采集利用的野生植物种类多达174种,主要用作野菜、草药等,利用部位主要是植物营养器官,如幼叶、嫩尖、枝条等,传统利用方式对于野生植物资源并未造成实质性的破坏。(3)景颇族对于野生植物资源的利用逐渐从采集向栽培方向发展。在山地森林中野生棕榈藤资源日渐减少的情况下,一些景颇族农户积累了棕榈藤种植的经验,不仅保护了物种资源,而且也逐渐成为其重要经济来源之一。在庭园中栽培的植物中,野生植物的种类占有很重要的份量(约50%),为野生植物资源的保护和驯化利用提供了丰富的传统实践知识和物质基础。(4)景颇族的刀耕火种——“火地”耕作生态知识是他们适应自然、维持生计比较成熟的山地生态系统管理技术,在维持山地生态系统动态平衡中起到了一定作用。在管理过程中主动防火,套种多种作物,混种非豆科固氮树种——旱冬瓜,一方面保存了作物种类和品种资源的多样性,另一方面为维持土地肥力提供了基础。(5)景颇族地区的土地利用与土地覆盖保持了较高的森林覆盖率,传统的“火地”耕作是导致土地利用和土地覆盖动态变化的主要原因。耕作活动的地点逐渐向村寨周围和公路沿线发展,逐渐集中于较低海拔范围。森林面积的变化受政策的影响非常明显。为了适应不同历史时期的土地利用政策,景颇族灵活地运用传统生态知识,在一定时期内,有利于传统知识的传承和发展。 景颇族拥有的丰富传统生态知识是建立在长期的人与植物相互作用的基础上,在现代经济社会活动中仍然起着重要作用。然而,随着现代化进程的加快、社会经济的发展、外来文化的不断进入,民族自我认同感越来越弱,多数民族社区的发展仍然十分落后。尤其是市场经济的发展,加之自然保护区的建设,长期积累的传统生态知识面临解体和流失的威胁。 为此,本研究提出了以下建议: (1)为了适应转型期社会经济的发展,需要进一步发掘、收集和整理民族和民间长期形成的传统知识体系,包括:关于非木材林产品的认识和利用知识;民族传统文化中对于生物多样性的保护知识;民族传统耕作系统中保护和利用农业生物多样性的知识; (2)德宏地区丰富的生物多样性,是当地民族赖以生存的基本物质条件和区域民族经济发展的基础。当地民族经济的发展必须建立在科学发展观的基础上,可持续利用资源的方法和途径应当以当地原住民族的生态知识和民族植物学知识去寻找和研究。 (3)强化民族意识,加强保护民族传统文化工作。关注民族人口的医疗保健,开展民族医药的发掘研究,更加重视民族地区的基础教育等;发展景颇族的饮食文化和民族医药文化。 (4)进一步加强生物多样性保护:协调保护与发展的矛盾,开展社区共管,鼓励当地社区参与保护区的管理,使当地社区在参与保护的同时从中受益;提倡和扶持当地农户庭园种植野生植物,提高庭园土地利用率,不断发掘具有开发利用价值的野生植物资源,通过人工栽培,达到有效保护的目的。 (5)在特定地区,尤其是在人口密度较低的地区,尝试建立“刀耕火种”(或“火地”耕作)保护区或博物馆,体现景颇族的传统生态知识和民族植物学知识的具体实践,使这一传统的农耕方式不至于绝迹,同时为更多的学者提供理想的开展系统研究的场所。
英文摘要: Jingpo people as a transboundary forest-dwelling ethnic group are mainly distributed in the mountain areas of northern Myanmar, Assam district of India and western Yunnan of China. Over their long history of surviving in the forest, they engaged themselves with rich knowledge coping with nature. Along with socio-economic development and progresses of modernization, their traditionally practiced slash-and-burn farming system is changing towards a more settled agriculture, therefore, their traditional knowledge favoring resource management have been threatened and will gradually disappear from the society. This study investigates the characteristics, values and issues of traditional ecological knowledge of Jingpo people in China through ethnobotanical approaches. Methodologies for thestudy include agroecosystem analysis, historical literature review, and a series of field works including semi-structured interview, questionnaire survey and participation & observation, as well as field methods used in ecological studies. It has been found out that the Jingpo people in the study area have accumulated rich knowledge about wild plants and mountain ecosystem management.1) The cosmo-vision of Jingpo people illustrates that they have been living harmoniously with nature. Their ancestors had clear concepts of “forest, plants and gathering” in mind, while recognizing, respecting and obeying the nature, some particular plants were endowed with special meanings and feelings, therefore priority of conservation were given to those particular plants, which reflects their long history of knowing and using wild plants; 2) Presently, traditional gathering and using wild plant resources still plays an important role in the living of Jingpo people. According to investigation, 174 species of wild plants in the study area are being used by local people, mostly as vegetable and herbal medicine, major parts of plants include young leaves, shoots, stems/branches etc., traditional uses of wild plants did not impose series damages to wild plants in the vicinity; 3) Use of wild plants has been changing from gathering to cultivation. Cultivation of rare species, e.g. rattan, has been proved to be an efficient way to manage wild plant resources and to generate income by Jingpo households; the wild plants cultivated in their home gardens have a share about 50% of the total number of plants. 4) The “slash-and-burn” farming system practiced by Jingpo people is a relatively maturated skill to manage mountain ecosystem which incorporates fire control, intercropping, and use of none-legume nitrogen fixing tree species to enrich soil fertility etc.; 5) Slash-and-burn farming triggers up the dynamic changes in land use and land cover, due to policy changes, traditional farming activities tends to concentrate near settlement and road in lower altitude areas; To meet the changes of land use policy, their traditional farming skills has been used flexibly, and switched from food production to cash crop production. The traditional ecological knowledge possessed by Jingpo people were resulted from the interaction between people and nature over the history that still play an important role in their economic and social activities. As the paces of modernization progresses, these valuable knowledge will shrink or diminish in future. Based on the above findings, it is suggested:1) To further study the traditional ecological knowledge systems of different ethnic groups, including knowledge on NTFP, etc.; 2) Sustainable development of regional economy should be based on scientific ideology, while knowledge held by indigenous people could be a potential reference; 3) Consolidate ethnic identity, help ethnic people with their health care, basic education, and explore the development of ethno-medicine and ethnic food culture; 4) Involve local people in nature conservation, co-management mechanism will meet the needs for both rural community and nature reserve management; 5) Try to experiment a nature reserve or field museum for “slash-and-burn farming system”, which will illustrate the specific ethnoecological and ethnobotanical knowledge, therefore, safeguarding the knowledge system before it diminishes, it will also become a destination of scholars and visitors.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/28
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
10001_200018010601341胡华斌胡华斌_paper.pdf(2367KB)----限制开放-- 联系获取全文

Recommended Citation:
云南德宏景颇族传统生态知识的民族植物学研究.胡华斌[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2006.20-25
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[胡华斌]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[胡华斌]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2017  中国科学院昆明植物研究所 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace