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题名: 茄科Nolaneae、天仙子族和茄参族的分子系统学与生物地理学研究
作者: 涂铁要
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2008-06-16
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 孙航
关键词: Nolana ; 天仙子属 ; 颠茄属 ; 山莨菪属 ; 天蓬子属 ; 赛莨菪属 ; 马尿泡属 ; 泡囊草属 ; 间断分布 ; 长距离传播 ; 迁移扩散 ; 隔离分化 ; 系统发育
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 茄科是一个世界广布的大科,共有42个族,约92属,近2300种[1]。Nolaneae、天仙子族(Hyoscyameae)和茄参族(Mandragoreae)是茄科中关系较近的三个族。利用分子生物学手段,作者分别构建了这三个族的叶绿体和(或)核基因的系统发育。结合已知的茄科和近缘科的化石资料,利用贝叶斯方法推测了这三个族的分异时间,进而探讨了这三个族一些类群的性状进化以及历史生物地理学问题。 1. Nolaneae的分子系统学与生物地理学 除了太平洋加拉帕戈斯群岛特有的Nolana galapagensis,Nolaneae所有其他种类分布于智利和秘鲁的太平洋沿岸的沙漠地区以及安第斯山区。利用4个叶绿体片段(ndhF, psbA-trnH, rps16-trnK和trnC-psbM)和2个核基因片段(LEAFY和GBSSI)构建的Nolaneae的系统发育表明叶绿体联合序列、LEAFY序列以及GBSSI基因序列均强烈支持Nolaneae为一单系类群。一些分支包括N. acuminata类群和Alona的部分类群得到了所有序列数据的强烈支持。叶绿体和LEAFY系统表明分布于智利的种类,包括Nolana sessiliflora, N. acuminata类群以及Alona类群是Nolaneae中最先分化的类群,由此可推测该族现存种类的祖先可能源自智利。LEAFY系统中三个具有强烈支持率的分支同时也分别得到SINE(short interspersed elements)或者SINE-like插入片段的支持。分布于秘鲁的种类聚在智利的分支当中,因此可能是从智利扩散而来的。在叶绿体、LEAFY和GBSSI系统中,加拉帕戈斯群岛的特有种Nolana galapagensis均和秘鲁的种类有较近的亲缘关系,表明该种来自于秘鲁而非智利。该种和智利的种类在形态上的相似性可能是趋同进化的结果。叶绿体系统、LEAFY系统和GBSSI系统除了上述一致的地方,相互之间也存在一些冲突,这些冲突可能意味着该族植物的网状进化历史。对其他导致不同基因树之间相互冲突的可能的原因例如lineage sorting、长支吸引(long branch attraction)、基因复制(gene duplication)等也进行了讨论[2, 3]。 2. 天仙子族的分子系统学与生物地理学 天仙子族是茄科当中分布区仅仅局限于欧亚大陆的两个族之一。利用6个叶绿体序列(ndhF, psbA-trnH, rps16-trnK,trnC-psbM,atpB和rbcL)联合分析构建的系统发育表明包括颠茄属(Atropa)、天蓬子属(Atropanthe)、山莨菪属(Anisodus)、天仙子属(Hyoscyamus)、泡囊草属(Physochlaina)、马尿泡属(Przewalskia)和赛莨菪属(Scopolia)在内的7属植物构成单系类群。其中颠茄属和由其他6属植物聚成的一支构成姐妹群。我们的结果还表明和天仙子族构成姐妹关系的是分布于南美或起源于南美的一支包括Nolaneae、枸杞族(Lycieae)以及Jaboroseae。在2个茄科化石点和2个旋花科化石点的基础上,利用贝叶斯法推测出欧亚大陆的天仙子族和南美姐妹群的分异时间在10个百万年左右。这一相对年轻的分异年龄表明隔离分化假说不适合用来解释天仙子族和南美姐妹群的洲际间断分布模式。天仙子族的祖先在到达欧亚大陆之后发生了一次快速的分化形成了族下的大部分属。天仙子族下各属种间的系统关系和分化时间表明,相对于青藏高原隆起和中亚干旱,迁移扩散和冰川作用能更好地解释现存的天仙子族植物在欧亚大陆的分布模式。 2. 茄参族的分子系统学与生物地理学 茄参族是茄科中另外一个分布区仅限于欧亚大陆的族。该族曾被分类学家置于天仙子族中。利用6个叶绿体基因(ndhF, psbA-trnH, rps16-trnK,trnC-psbM,atpB和rbcL)联合分析了该族所有4种植物的种间关系以及分异时间。结果表明包括所有4种植物的茄参族为单系类群。茄参族和茄族、酸浆族等有更近的亲缘关系。利用贝叶斯方法,我们推测茄参属与其姐妹群的分异年龄为10.3个百万年。这一结果表明茄参族是独立于天仙子族到达欧亚大陆的。茄参属种间形态上的差异可能是不同地区的种类承受不同的选择压力的结果。
英文摘要: The Solanaceae is a cosmopolitan family with 42 tribes, ca. 92 genera, and about 2300 species[1]. Tribes Nolaneae, Hyoscyameae and Mandragoreae are thought to be closely related. The phylogenies of the three tribes are constructed using sequences of the chloroplast and/or nuclear regions. Based on the fossil records and the sequence data, the divergence time of the three tribes were estimated using the Beysian method. The evolution of the morphology of some taxa and the historical biogeography of the three tribes were discussed. 1. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Nolaneae The phylogeny of Nolaneae (Solanaceae), a monotypic tribe primarily distributed in the coastal Atacama and Peruvian deserts with a few species in the Andes and one species endemic to the Galapagos Islands, was reconstructed using sequences of four cpDNA regions (ndhF, psbA-trnH, rps16-trnK, and trnC-psbM), the nuclear LEAFY second intron and part sequences of the nuclear GBSSI gene. The monophyly of Nolana was strongly supported by all molecular data. Both cpDNA and LEAFY data suggested that the Chilean species, including Nolana sessiliflora, the N. acuminata group and at least some members of the Alona group, are basally diverged, supporting the Chilean origin of the genus. Three well supported clades in the LEAFY tree were corroborated by the SINE (short interspersed elements) or SINE-like insertions. Taxa from Peru are grouped roughly into two clades. Nolana galapagensis from the Galapagos Island is most likely to have derived from a Peruvian ancestor. The monophyly of the morphologically well diagnosed Nolana acuminata group (N. acuminate, N. baccata, N. paradoxa, N. parviflora, N. pterocarpa, N. rupicola and N. elegans) was supported by all molecular data in this study. The incongruence between the chloroplast and the LEAFY data was detected concerning primarily the positions of N. sessiliflora, N. galapagensis, taxa of the Alona group, and the two Peruvian clades. Such incongruence may be due to the reticulate evolution or in some cases the lineage sorting of cpDNA. Incongruence between the GBSSI trees and the cpDNA-LEAFY trees was also detected concerning two well-supported major clades in the GBSSI tree. Duplication of the GBSSI gene may have contributed to this incongruence[2, 3]. 2. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Hyoscyameae Hyoscyameae represents one of the only two tribes of Solanaceae, which are exclusively Eurasia in distribution. Phylogeny inferred from combined data of six chloroplast regions (ndhF, psbA-trnH, rps16-trnK,trnC-psbM,atpB and rbcL)suggested that Hyoscyameae, consisting of Atropa, Atropanthe, Anisodus, Hyoscyamus, Physochlaina, Przewalskia and Scopolia, is strongly supported to be a monophyly. Atropa is sister to a clade which is comprised of the remainder genera. The sister relationship between the Eurasian Hyoscyameae and a clade (e.g. Lycieae-Nolaneae-Jaboroseae) restricted to or origined in South America was also detected in this study. Based on 4 fossil records from Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae, a ca. 10 million years of divergence time of the Eurasian Hyoscyameae and its South American sister was estimated using the Bayesian method. The divergence time is too young to interprete the intercontinental disjunction of Hyoscyameae and its sister by the vicariance theory. Most genera within Hyoscyameae diverged in a relatively short period after the ancestor of Hyoscyameae reached Eurasia. The Long distance dispersal or the glaciation, rather than the uplift of Tibetan Plateau and the aridity of Central Asia, may have played a major role in the modern distribution pattern of Hyoscyameae species in the Eurasia. 3. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Mandragoreae Mandragoreae represents the other tribe of Solanaceae which is distributed exclusively in Eurasia. The species relationships and their divergence time were analysed using the combined data of 6 chloroplast regions (ndhF, psbA-trnH, rps16-trnK,trnC-psbM,atpB and rbcL). The monophyly of Mandragoreae was strongly supported. A close relationship between Mandragoreae and the Solaneae-Physaleae clade was detected. Using the Bayesian method, a 10.3 million years of divergence time between Mandragoreae and its sister was estimated based on 4 fossil records and sequence variation. Our results suggested that this tribe reached Eurasia independently. The species relationships suggested that selection in different regions may be responsible for the morphological variation between species.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/256
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
茄科Nolaneae、天仙子族和茄参族的分子系统学与生物地理学研究.涂铁要[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2008.20-25
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