山珠南星和一把伞南星的繁殖生物学研究
其他题名Reproductive studies on Arisaema yunnanense Buchet and A. erubescens (Wall.) Schott
胡光万
学位类型博士
导师龙春林
2008-01-26
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点昆明植物研究所
学位专业植物学
关键词山珠南星 一把伞南星 性别分化 变性 繁殖生物学 花器官发生 传粉 种子生物学
摘要天南星是一类有趣的能变性的植物,并且具有重要的经济价值。本文对于天南星属代表植物,山珠南星和一把伞南星的生长和性别分化规律、茎的生长式样、花器官发生发育方式、传粉生物学特征以及种子萌发特性和超低温保存等进行了研究,得到的主要研究结果如下: 1. 两种天南星都为季节性雌性异株植物,同一植株的性别在不同生长季节中可以发生变化。它们除了不能直接由无性植株变为雌株以外,其它在无性植株、雄株和雌株之间的各种变化方式都可发生。它们的性别分化和转换符合“个体大小优势”模型。在不同环境中的植株,性别在无性与有性、雄性与雌性之间分化时,与性别表现相关的各形态学指标的阀值不同。假茎基径在各形态学指标中受环境影响最小,是用来预测植株性别的最佳指标。在生长期,有性植株表现为雄株或雌株的机率与其假茎基径大小之间呈Logistic曲线相关关系,通过曲线方程配合所得出的关系公式为:y=0.9976/[1+e(4.5254-0.7463x)]。 2. 根据叶和芽在球茎上生长和排列方式,山珠南星茎的生长式样属于Murata所定义的第4种类型(Type 4. Negishii type)。一把伞南星茎的生长式样属于Murata所定义的第6种类型(Type 6. Serratum type)。雌雄花原基在花序轴上都呈螺旋向心式产生。雄花原基上只产生雄蕊原基,雌花原基上只产生雌蕊原基,两者都没有其它花器官原基产生的痕迹。雄花原基产生后,通过中间横向凹陷,分裂为上下两部分,各部分再发育出两个各具两个药囊的雄蕊。雌花原基产生后,通过原基四周向上隆起生长,先发育成杯状,后发育为壶形,最后发育成为倒卵形的雌蕊。在每个雌蕊中,山珠南星一般产生5个胚珠,一把伞南星一般产生2~3个胚珠。 3. 两种天南星主要传粉者都为双翅目蕈蚊科和尖眼蕈蚊科昆虫。它们的花序佛焰苞的条纹和花序的气味是吸引传粉昆虫的主要因素,雄花序佛焰苞管基部的开口结构在传粉中起着重要作用。它们的传粉成功率由两类昆虫的数量决定,并受两类昆虫类所寄生蘑菇资源量影响人工授粉可大大提高它们的结果率。 4. 两者的新鲜种子都有休眠现象,干燥脱水是打破它们种子休眠的有效途径。两者种子能进一步干燥到含水量为5%,并且在含水量为5~10%时,经过液氮超低温处理后都能保持和正常种子一样高的萌发率。干燥和超低温保存是两种天南星属植物种子有效可行的保存方式。
其他摘要Arisaema (Araceae) is an interesting group which changes sex from one growing season to another. The studies of its two representatives, A. yunnanense and A. erubescens, have been performed in the past three years. Their growth, sex change, pattern of stem, floral initiation and development, seed germination and preservation in liquid nitrogen have been surveyed, studied and analyzed. The main research results are summarized as follows. 1. Both species are dioecious seasonally in sex expression, and their sex often changes from one growing season to another. Their sex expression and switch abides “size advantage” model. Affected by environmental factors, plant size measures have different thresholds of the sex expression and switch in different environments. Of all size measures, the basal diameter of pseudostem is the one which is not affected easily by environmental factors and there is a stable relationship between pseudostem basal diameter and sex expression. In the growing season, the relationship between probability of being male or female of sexual plants and their basal diameter of pseudostems matches logistic curve. Logistic regression concludes their corresponding formula is: y=0.9976/[1+e(4.5254-0.7463x)]. 2. The stem growth pattern of A. yunnanense belongs to Type 4 (Negishii type) in the type series defined by Murata in 1987. While the growth pattern of A. erubescens belongs to Type 6 (Serratum Type). Both Arisaema species have sympodial shoots with a 2-year growth cycle during sexual growth. Floral primordia appear on spadix in spiral sequence. In female flowers, the primordium becomes torus shaped, and the margin grows upward as gynoeciaum wall. Mostly, each basal placenta produces 2-3 ovules in A. erubescens and 5 ovules in A. yunnanense. In male flowers, the top of the promodium is divided into two parts, and each part develops into a stamen. In stamen development, its top is divided into two smaller parts further, and each part develops into a horseshoe-shaped anther. 3. The two Arisaema species are both adapted to pollination by fungus gnats (Mycetophilidae and Sciaridae). The strips on spathes and scent of inflorescence are the main factors in attracting the pollinators. The gap at spathe tube bottom of male inflorescence is a very important structure in their pollination. The efficiency of pollination is determined by the density of the fungus gnats and affected by the resources of mushrooms where the fungus gnats parasitize. Pollen limitation and resource limitation are both responsibility to incomplete fruitage. Manual pollination can enhance the fruitage. 4. The fresh seeds of both Arisaema species have dormancy. Dehydration can break their dormancy. Their dormancy and the mode of breaking dormancy is an adaptation to the environment. Their seeds still have high germination rate after being dehydrated to 5% of water content and being reserved in liquid nitrogen in dehydrated condition. The dehydration and super-low temperature are feasible methods to preserve the seeds of these two Arisaema species.
页数117
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/254
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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胡光万. 山珠南星和一把伞南星的繁殖生物学研究[D]. 昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2008.
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