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题名: 亮叶水青冈遗传多样性与长柄水青冈谱系地理学研究
作者: 王群
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2009-02-10
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 李德铢
关键词: 亮叶水青冈 ; 遗传多样性 ; 遗传结构 ; 微卫星标记 ; 长柄水青冈 ; 谱系地理学 ; 叶绿体DNA
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 中国位于亚洲大陆东部,山脉纵横、走势复杂。这些高大山脉形成了植物传播的通道或屏障,使中国成为许多植物类群的起源地、多样性中心和“避难所”。中国可划分为中国-日本森林植物亚区和中国-喜马拉雅森林植物亚区在内的共7个植物亚区。中国-日本森林植物亚区拥有北半球最为丰富的温带植物多样性,华中、华东和华南则是中国-日本森林植物亚区的核心。对这一地区中国特有树种的进化历史、遗传多样性和遗传结构开展研究具有深远的意义。本论文以分布于中国的2种水青冈属植物(属中国-日本植物亚区)为研究材料,利用微卫星标记对亮叶水青冈(Fagus lucida)做了遗传多样性及遗传结构方面的研究,并利用叶绿体DNA对长柄水青冈(Fagus longipetiolata)的谱系地理学进行了研究,得到以下结论: 1、 亮叶水青冈植物遗传多样性及遗传结构研究 利用6个微卫星标记对中国特有种亮叶水青冈15个居群的遗传多样性及遗传结构进行了研究。结果表明,亮叶水青冈的遗传多样性水平非常高,居群间分化较弱。居群间存在广泛的基因交流,是导致风媒树种居群间分化较弱的原因。Mantel test 分析表明遗传距离与地理距离存在显著的正相关,这意味着随着地理距离的增加,基因流减弱从而导致遗传距离加大。根据遗传距离所做的UPGMA拓扑结构暗示采样居群呈东西分化的趋势。综合各项遗传多样性参数比较,浙江百山祖居群拥有最高的遗传多样性水平,其次是福建武夷山居群。 2、 长柄水青冈谱系地理学研究 利用2个叶绿体DNA非编码区序列分析了长柄水青冈20个居群134个个体,得到14个叶绿体单倍型。长柄水青冈的cp DNA单倍型多样性水平很高 (HT=0.945),居群间存在很大的遗传分化(Gst=0.918, Nst=0.941),并存在显著的谱系地理结构(U=3.05,P<0.01)。遗传多样性较高可能与进化历史有关,居群间遗传分化较高与低效的种子传播机制相关。由于H6及H9单倍型的地理分布跨度较大,不能排除长距离传播的可能性。单倍型谱系关系表明H3和H6为较古老的单倍型,其余单倍型皆是由这两个单倍型演化而来。嵌套分支分析表明长柄水青冈总体上表现为连续扩张模式,在局部地区存在有限基因流及邻域片段化效应。由于H3单倍型向西、向南及向东演化形成了5种单倍型,因此武陵山脉可能是长柄水青冈的散布通道。南岭、罗霄山脉一带具有丰富的单倍型,可能是长柄水青冈cp DNA单倍型多样化中心。在长柄水青冈进化历史上,可能存在至少两条迁移路线。第一条可能就是由武陵山脉向西、向南及向东扩张。第二条路线可能是从南岭、罗霄山脉一带向西、向南及向东扩张。第一条路线要早于第二条。浙江居群对华中及华南居群的形成没有贡献,可能是因为隔离造成的。四川盆地边缘居群可能是由华中贵州宽阔水居群演化形成。
英文摘要: China, characterized by extremely complex topology of mountain systems, is central piece of flora of seed plants of East Asia. The complex topography results in a wide range of climatic conditions. Climatic and topographic conditions engender a wide variety of vegetation types. These loft mountains shaping plant dispersal passages or barriers make China become centers of origin, and/or genetic diversity and refuges of many species. Floristic regions in china are divided into seven subkingdoms among which Sino-Japanese Forest Subkingdom and the Sino-Himalayan Forest Subkingdom possess the richest temperate plant biodiversity. Central China, South China and East China are the major floristic regions in the Sino-Japanese Forest Subkingdom. So elucidating evolutionary history, gentic diversity and genetic structure of endemic tree species to this region is of far-reaching significance. Fagus is a small genera of the Fagaceae including 8 to 10 species which are dominant in many deciduous forests of the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere. Because of their wide distribution in the north temperate zone and great economic importance, species of Fagus have been becoming studying focuses in many areas, such as phylogeny, biogeography and genetics. Fagus species in China are distributed in the mountain regions of Central China, South China and East China regions. In this thesis, two studies were conducted. One is on the genetic diversity and structure of Fagus lucida, a species endemic to China, inferred by microsatellite markers. The other is the phylogeography of F. longipetiolata based on two non-coding cp DNA regions. Conclusions are sumarized as following: 1. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of F. lucida based on microsatellite markers Genetic diversity and genetic structure of fifteen populations of F. lucida were studied by using six microsatellite loci. It revealed a high degree of genetic diversity. That Fst value 0.056 indicated that there was very weak differentiation among F.lucida populations. AMOVA analysis indicated most of genetic variance was within populations (94.35%), while only 5.65% of genetic variance was among populations. These results were in common with previous results of long-lived, outcrossing tree. Fis value (0.019) indicated that inbreeding existed, and it was resulted from 5 populations deviated Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. No bottleneck effect was detected among the sampled populations. Gene flow value whether it was estimated using typical method or private alleles method was more than 1, and it was sufficient to counteract the action of genetic drift on the genetic composition of individual populations. Mantel test indicated that positive significant correlation was detected between the genetic distances and geographic distances (r=0.357, p=0.012). Cluster analysis of UPGMA based on genetic distance also showed that sampled populations are spatially genetically structured. Eastern populations are differentiated from central and south populations. Two populations, ZJB and FJW, possessed higher genetic diversity. 2. Phylogeography study of F.longipetiolata based on two non-coding cp DNA regions Intraspecific genetic variation in two non-coding chloroplast DNA (cp DNA) regions (atpI-atpH spacer and ndhJ-trnF spacer) among 20 populations of F. longipetiolata from throughout the distributing range was investigated. 134 individuals were sequenced. Fourteen different haplotypes were detected. It revealed that there were high genetic diversity (Ht=0.945) and high genetic differentiation (Gst=0.918, Nst=0.941) among populations in F.longipetiolata, but genetic diversity within populations (Hs =0.078) was very low. The high genetic diversity may be caused by its evolutionary history. The high level of differentiation among populations indicated a low efficience in seed dispersal mechanism. But we could not exclude the probability of long distance dispersal because of wide geographical span for haplotype H6 and H9. Network of cp DNA haplotypes indicated that H3 and H6 were the ancestral haplotypes from which other haplotyes were evolved. In addition, the difference between Gst and Nst for the species is very significant(U=3.05,P<0.01), suggesting that the phylogeographic structure is strong. Nested clade analysis indicated that the genetic structure of F. longipetiolata was resulted from the effect of population’s contiguous range expansion, allopatric fragmentation and restricted gene flow with isolation by distance. Wulingshan mountain range may be a dispersal corridor of F. longipetiolata, because haplotype H3 in this region evolved to form five haplotypes toward the west, the south and the east. Nanling mountain range and Luoxiao mountain range may be haplotype diversity center because of its rich haplotypes. In the evolutionary history, there might be not less than two migrating routes. The first one might be to expand to the west, the south and the east regions from Wuling mountain range. It seemed that F. longipetiolata had continuous distribution in that time. The second one might be to expand to the west, the south and the east regions form Nanling and Luoxiao mountain range. The first one may be occurred earlier than the second one. It may be caused by isolation that Zhejiang populations did not contribute to the population colonization of central and south China. Populations of Sichuan Basin Edge may be evolved from population KKS of Central China region.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/252
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
亮叶水青冈遗传多样性与长柄水青冈谱系地理学研究.王群[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2009.20-25
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