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题名: 云南迪庆藏区藏族传统文化影响下的青稞传统种质资源遗传多样性研究
作者: 李亚莉
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2008-01-26
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 龙春林
关键词: 青稞 ; 藏族传统文化 ; 遗传多样性 ; 表型多样性 ; AFLP ; 形态性状 ; 保护策略 ; 迪庆藏区
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 青稞(Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.)是禾本科(Poaceae)大麦属(Hordeum L.)作物,分布广泛,但其分布的频率在世界不同地区则不相同,在中国主要分布于青藏高原,包括西藏、青海、甘肃、四川以及云南西北部的迪庆藏族自治州。云南迪庆藏族自治州属青藏高原南延部分,位于喜马拉雅东部、横断山脉西南腹地,是滇、川及西藏三省区交汇处,由于地势复杂,气候多样,境内形成错综复杂的“立体气候”,青稞的遗传种质资源十分丰富。藏族是迪庆州的主体民族,青稞是藏民的主食。藏族传统文化及与之相关的传统农业系统在青稞种质资源的管理、利用及遗传多样性保护上具有重要的作用。 由于分布频率所限,国内外对青稞的研究甚少。有关青稞遗传多样性的研究主要集中在喜马拉雅地区,而对云南迪庆藏区青稞种质资源遗传多样性的研究尚未见报道。本研究应用民族植物学手段,通过参与式的方法,对青稞传统品种资源相关的传统民族文化和生态知识进行调查;选择具有代表性的形态学性状,对青稞传统品种的表型多样性进行分析;同时,利用AFLP分子标记技术,检测和分析青稞种质资源的遗传多样性。通过上述工作,揭示青稞传统品种资源的遗传多样性,探讨当地藏族传统文化对青稞种质资源遗传多样性的影响,从而验证迪庆藏族传统文化对遗传多样性的保护作用,并提出相应的保护策略。主要研究结果如下: 1. 迪庆藏区青稞传统种质资源遗传多样性的形成,除了与当地特殊的自然环境有关外,还与藏族传统文化密切相关。藏族的传统宗教信仰、饮食文化、风俗文化等都与青稞息息相关。青稞成为连接文化与生物多样性以及各种文化现象之间的“重要物种”。 2. 用形态特征来检测遗传变异简便易行,形态特征是基因型与环境共同作用的结果,可在一定程度上反映生物遗传变异的程度,是理解物种适应机制的重要方法。对具有代表性的11个主要性状的平均数、标准差、变异系数的分析表明,迪庆青稞传统品种之间存在丰富的表型变异。其中,芒状、粒色和穗密度的变异系数较高,均超过50%,说明这三个性状是青稞品种形态性状中的重要性状,是反映其表型多样性的重要指标。适应复杂的自然环境条件可能是迪庆青稞传统品种具有较高表型变异的主要原因,反映了作物在其进化的过程中,对周围的自然生态环境和人为干扰的适应。 3. 利用AFLP分子标记对来源不同的青稞种质资源进行遗传多样性的分析, 5对引物组合共扩增出576条带,其中多态带为517条,多态位点百分率为89.76%。结果表明,AFLP分子标记能有效的揭示材料间较高的多态性。 4. 13个居群的遗传多样性分析结果表明,迪庆地区的3个青稞居群具有最高的遗传多样性水平,其遗传多样性高于云南省其它地区青稞传统品种。迪庆地区3个居群的平均期望杂合度、Shannon指数及多态位点百分率值高于其余的10个居群。3个居群中又以德钦居群的遗传多样性水平最高,该居群的He、I、PPB三个参数值均最高,分别为0.0924、0.1614、59.72%。分析迪庆藏区传统品种遗传多样性高的原因,一方面是藏族传统文化的可持续利用和保护,另一方面可能是该地区自然环境条件的异质性所致。迪庆地区不同海拔环境条件下的青稞品种具有很高的遗传多样性,可以解释为青稞对环境条件和其它生物、非生物因子的适应性趋异变化。传统品种居群与育成品种居群遗传多样性的比较分析结果则表明,地方品种的遗传多样性明显高于育成品种,这可能是源于后者的育种材料具有相似的遗传背景及栽培环境的变异不大。 5. 分析各居群间的遗传分化程度,13个居群间的遗传一致度在0.9356-0.9982之间,其中香格里拉居群和德钦居群间具有最高的一致度(IN=0.9982);所有居群中昆明居群和青海居群间的遗传一致度最低(IN=0.9356)。这是基于青稞在进化上的地位是属于自花授粉的被子植物,其自花授粉的繁育特性致使青稞的遗传杂合度水平低于异花授粉植物。Gst 和AMOVA分析均得出,居群内部的遗传多样性高于居群之间。居群间的遗传分化值(Gst)为0.2587,即在总的遗传变异中,有25.87%的遗传变异存在于居群间,而74.13%的遗传变异存在于居群内。AMOVA变异成分分析结果则显示3.32%的遗传变异存在于居群间,96.68%存在于居群内部。这一结论与居群之间有限的基因交流和居群内部存在高的自交率的事实相反。但与前人研究过的其它大麦类型的结果一致。UPGMA聚类分析显示,具有相似地理来源的居群间遗传距离相近而优先聚类。 6. 得益于特殊的地理位置、异质化的环境以及传统的藏族文化保护,迪庆藏区拥有丰富的青稞种质资源。促进青稞传统品种的保护和可持续利用,就地(农田内)保护和迁地保护措施都应加以重视。在就地保护中,尤其应当重视当地的传统农业管理模式和农业实践经验,以及当地社区对已有资源的良性管理和合理利用。迁地保护中要尽量采集不同生态地理和气候条件下的青稞种子,将不同品种的种子保存于种子库,适时复种,实现迁地保护。利用生物技术手段为种质资源的保护策略提供理论基础。另外,保护民族传统文化以及充分利用传统文化的力量来保护青稞种质资源的遗传多样性也是有效的途径之一。
英文摘要: Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.) belongs to the genus Hordeum in the Poaceae (grass family). Hulless barley is distributed widely, but its frequency greatly differs among regions. In China, hulless barley is distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, covering Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. In Yunnan Province, hulless barley is mainly distributed in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Located in the southern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the eastern Himalayas, Diqing is the junction of Yunnan, Tibet and Sichuan provinces. The wide geographic and climatic distribution is indicative of the fact that there exists a tremendous genetic diversity in hulless barley. In Diqing Prefecture, the majority is Tibetan (or Zang minority in Chinese) and traditional Tibetan practices play an important role, particularly in natural resource management and farming systems of hulless barley. The genetic diversity of different original hulless barley had been described by various authors. Most researches have focused on hulless barley in the Himalayan region. However, little is known about the detailed information on genetic diversity of Diqing hulless barley landraces. In the present study, we applied approaches of participatory rural appraisal (PRA), ethnobotany, questionnaires and semi-structured interview for data collection related to Traditional Tibetan culture and knowledge on hulless barley; analyzed the morphological diversity of hulless barley landrace from Diqing Prefecture using morphological traits; and analyzed the genetic diversity of hulless barley using AFLP markers. The aims of this study are not only to analyze the genetic diversity of hulless barley from Diqing, but to validate the high genetic diversity level of hulless barley landraces in Diqing through the traditional conservation system. The main results are summarized as follows: 1. Benefiting from the special location with diverse ecogeography, climate and biodiversity conserved through traditional Tibetan culture, there are rich genetic germplasm resources of hulless barley in Diqing. Hulless barley is closely associated with Tibetan nature worship, religion, lifestyle, and diet. As a “key species”, hulless barley is a bridge to connect the biodiversity and culture. 2. It is a convenient method using morphological traits to analyze the genetic diversity. In the present study, we analyzed the morphological diversity of hulless barley landraces from Diqing using eleven morphological traits. The results of average, SSD and coefficient of variation (CV) showed that there are rich morphological variations in hulless barley landraces. Among these morphological traits, the CV of awn property, grain color and spike density reached more than 50%. It indicated that three morphological traits mentioned above are the important indexes to reflect the level of diversity. One of the main reasons of high level morphological variation of hulless barley may be due to environmental heterogeneity. The rich genetic diversity of hulless barley landraces In Diqing Prefecture at different altitudes can be explained by the species’ need to adapt to the differentiation of environmental conditions and other factors. 3. The present study demonstrated the potential of the AFLP technique for the generation of extensive genetic polymorphism data appropriate to the analysis of individual DNA profile, population structure and genetic diversity. Our study detected a higher rate of polymorphism and provided higher resolution due to generation of large number of loci. A total of 576 bands were generated, of which 517 (89.76%) were polymorphic. 4. The results of genetic diversity among hulless barley populations indicated that there were significant differences in genetic diversities among the 13 populations. The three populations representing Diqing Prefecture recorded the highest level of genetic diversity, and the highest percentage of polymorphic loci, expected heterozygoity and Shannon’s information index. Among three population from the prefecture, the genetiv diversity of Deqin population is the highest (He=0.0924, I=0.1614, PPB=59.72%). This may be due to the sustainable utilization and conservation through Tibetan traditional culture, and due to environmental heterogeneity as landraces in Diqing were collected from different altitudes ranging from 1751m to 3550m. In the comparing of genetic diversity between landraces and bred-accessions, the genetic diversity of landraces was quite high compared with bred-accessions. The low level of diversity in bred-accession may be attributed to uniformity of the environmental variables and the similar genetic background of breeding materials. 5. On average, AFLP analysis revealed that the genetic similarities were close between populations, ranging from 0.9356 to 0.9982. One of the major contributing factors to the high degree of genetic similarity observed in different populations of hulless barley may imply its evolutionary status as a self-pollinating angiosperm. The heterogeneity level of hulless barley is not as high as that of cross-pollinating plants because it is a self-pollinating plant. Gst and AMOVA analyses overall loci showed that the degree of diversity within population was greater than that among populations. The proportion of total allelic diversity found among populations was Gst = 0.2587. The mean Gst over all loci indicated that, on average, 25.87% of the variation was among populations and 74.13% (1– Gst) was within populations. The examination of hierarchical partitioning of genetic variation by AMOVA demonstrated that 3.32% was attributed to population differences while 96.68% of the total variation was attributed to individual differences within the population. These results are in contrast to expectations under conditions of limited migration between populations and the high selfing rate within population. However, these results are in agreement with other studies on barley where a higher degree of genetic diversity is partitioned within, rather than between populations. The genetic relationship among the 13 populations was displayed in a tree diagram using UPGMA and the results showed that the genetic distances of landrace populations with similar geographical origin were relative similarity. 6. Benefiting from the special location with environmental heterogeneity associated with traditional Tibetan culture, Diqing Prefecture forms an important reservoir of biodiversity, and there are rich germplasm resources of hulless barley in this region. To promote the conservation and sustainable use of hulless barley landraces in Diqing, in situ (on farm) and ex situ approaches should be considered. The two methods are mutual-complementary rather than antagonistic. Practically, this would involve farmer-training exercises to maintain good collection and management practices of currently hulless barley germplasm. Furthermore, a long term conservation strategy of hulless barley landrace should be commended, that is, ex situ conservation. The seeds of hulless barley landraces, under the different eco-geography and climate in the prefecture, should be collected and stored in the seed bank, and used these resources to propagate new seeds routinely. AFLP molecular marker can also provide the basis for handling and evaluating hulless barley germplasm resources and using it in breeding improvement. In conclusion, the Traditional Tibetan culture and management practices can contribute to the conservation strategies to protect the rich genetic diversity of hulless barley landraces.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/246
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云南迪庆藏区藏族传统文化影响下的青稞传统种质资源遗传多样性研究.李亚莉[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2008.20-25
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