KIB OpenIR  > 昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
Thesis Advisor王红
Degree Grantor中国科学院昆明植物研究所
Place of Conferral昆明植物研究所
Degree Discipline植物学
Keyword横断山区 绒舌马先蒿 斗叶马先蒿群 马先蒿属 繁育生物学 生殖隔离 孢粉学 花粉演化
Abstract横断山区是马先蒿属(Pedicularis L.)植物的多样化中心和分布中心之一。本研究选择丽江玉龙雪山为主要研究地点,通过对马先蒿属植物同域物种间的生殖隔离机制和高海拔分布的绒舌马先蒿(Pedicularis lachnoglossa Hk. f.)的繁育生物学、以及对横断山区特有斗叶群(Sect. Cyathophora)的孢粉学的研究,得到以下结论: 1. 马先蒿属植物在丽江玉龙雪山以及横断山其它地区的分布具有非常显著的物种重叠。4个调查和记录的样点中2个样点内有5种,另外两个样点内是6种。各个的样点内的物种之间生殖隔离方式不一样,但可以大致的分成四大类:开花时间的隔离、花部结构的隔离、传粉者行为的隔离和生境的隔离。 2. 绒舌马先蒿是典型高海拔物种,其有性繁殖必须依靠熊蜂采集花粉才能完成授粉。熊蜂对绒舌马先蒿的访问具有非常高的恒定性,在访问的过程中,会忽略和跳过访问路线中的其它物种,偶尔也会转移去采集其它物种的花蜜。人工控制实验表明:不存在自花自动授粉;自交可亲和,但是易发生近交衰退;种子在发育过程中败育非常明显;花粉限制不明显,但是资源限制很显著。单个花序的花展示大小变化与授粉率呈反相关,在一定程度上可以提高传粉吸引;但是植株具有的花序数量与座果率不太相关,这种结果可能与同株异花授粉发生的自交有一定的关系。 3. 利用光镜和电镜对斗叶群全部7个种的花粉形态进行观察。萌发孔类型只有三合沟和二合沟两种类型,属于较为进化的类群。孢粉学证据除了可以用于该群内的一些种与种之间的关系处理外,还可以用于分析该群以及属的花粉演化趋势。通过进一步分析该群物种占据的不同生境,认为该属植物的花粉演化可能受到环境的选择。
Other AbstractWith about 500 species worldwide, Pedicularis L. is a lineage of hemiparasitic flowering plants and occurs throughout the northern hemisphere. The greatest morphological diversity and species richness in Pedicularis are confined to a relatively small region of the Hengduan Mountains, where contains about half of species,in which two-thirds ones are endemic. However, due to the relative inaccessibility of the Hengduan Mountains region, many aspects of the basic biology of Pedicularis are poorly known, especially in their reproductive biology. In this paper, the reproductive mechanism of sympatric Pedicularis and pollination biology of P. lachnoglossa Hk. f. at high altitude were studied from Yulong Mountains,, and pollen morphology of Sect. Cyathophora, which is endemic to the Hengduan Mountains, was also addresed. Major results of this study were summarized as follows: 1. It is common that more than two Pedicularis species occurred sympatrically in a small area in Yulong Mountains of Lijiang and the other areas of the Hengduan Mountains region. More notablely, they all have a flowering period ranging from June to August. In the four study sites, two sites were found to have five sympatric species and the other two have six ones. The sympatric species at different sites used different means to achieve reproductive isolation, including temporal isolation, floral isolation, ethological isolation and habitat isolation. 2. Pedicularis lachnoglossa Hk. f. is a typical high altitude species, which exclusively depend on bumblebees for pollen collecting and pollination. Bumblebees were not the specialized pollinators for P. lachnoglossa and other Pedicularis species, but they showed high flower-constancy on P. lachnoglossa in a single pollination trip. We found that the bumblebees were more absorbed in collecting pollen from P. lachnoglossa, although they might also occasionally visit other species for nectar. In the control experiments, we found that the bagged flowers did not produce fruits and seeds. Self pollen grains were compatible, but self-depression might exist; ovule or seed abortion was obvious in seed development; pollen limitation was not significant, but resource limitation was obvious. Flower display sizes were related to pollination ratios, which showed negative correlation. If flowers were not pollinated, flower displays would be enhanced and pollination attractiveness promoted. However, no correlation was detected between the inflorescences numbers per plant and the fruits set, which might be explained by seed abortion of geitonogamy. 3. Pollen morphology of seven species in sect. Cyathophora was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). Two different pollen apertures could be distinguished (i.e. trisyncolpate and bisyncolpate), which might be more advanced in Pedicularis. The possible relationships between pollen data and corolla types were discussed. Based on the comparison of habitat and pollen characters of sect. Cyathophora, we found that pollen evolution might be more complicated than previously expected.
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
郁文彬. 横断山区马先蒿属植物的繁育策略[D]. 昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2006.
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