To better understand vegetation dynamics and the Asian monsoonal climate in the Neogene, we reconstructed the vegetational succession and climate of Wenshan basin in southwestern China during the late Miocene (11.62-5.33 Ma). We used newly available palynological data and the results of a quantitative bioclimatic analysis. The late Miocene palynoflora in Wenshan basin resembles that of modern evergreen broadleaf vegetation in subtropical East Asia. Based on pollen elements and reconstructed palaeoclimates in 72 samples, we found the composition of the vegetation in the Wenshan basin fluctuated during the late Miocene and was likely driven by natural climate variability. Quantitative estimates suggest that the mean annual temperature (MAT) ranged from 16.6 to 17.5 degrees C; the mean annual precipitation (MAP) was similar to 1500 mm; and the monsoon intensity index (MSI) ranged from 11.3 to 17.1. Our results indicate that the Wenshan basin experienced a warm, wet, and temperate to subtropical climate. By comparison with other late Miocene sites in Yunnan, we show that temperatures differed slightly from region to region and, overall, annual and seasonal precipitation levels were higher in the late Miocene than at present, but with a weaker monsoon intensity than in the Wenshan basin today. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.