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题名: 木兰科几种植物种子休眠和种质资源保存的研究
作者: 韩春艳
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2008-01-26
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 龙春林
关键词: 木兰科 ; 形态休眠 ; 形态生理休眠 ; 贮藏习性 ; 离体保存
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 本文对木兰科(Magnoliaceae)几种植物的种子休眠、萌发、贮藏习性和贮藏条件,以及离体培养和离体保存进行了研究,初步判断出川滇木莲(Manglietia cuclouxii)、西康玉兰(Magnolia wilsonii)、灰岩含笑(Michelia calcicola)、黄兰(M. champaca)、球花含笑(M. sphaerantha)和云南含笑(M. yunnanensis)等6种木兰科植物种子休眠类型、打破休眠方法、贮藏习性和适宜贮藏条件,对望春玉兰(Magnolia biondii)、馨香玉兰(Magnolia odoratissima)、黄兰、乐昌含笑(Michelia chapensis)、多花含笑(Michelia floribunda)和球花含笑进行了离体培养和离体保存的研究,建立了离体保存体系。 1.木兰科6种植物种子的休眠类型 研究结果表明黄兰种子属形态休眠,GA可促进其种子萌发。川滇木莲、云南含笑、灰岩含笑和球花含笑为中度复杂型形态生理休眠,由于后熟作用可打破这4种植物种子休眠,冷层积和GA都可克服种子休眠,4种植物种子形态生理休眠中生理休眠类型可能属于非深度生理休眠。西康玉兰种子也属于中度复杂型形态生理休眠,然而后熟作用不能打破西康玉兰种子休眠,但可缩短冷层积所需时间,其中的生理休眠可能属于中度生理休眠。 研究还发现川滇木莲和云南含笑种子在冷层积过程中很可能存在种子休眠循环现象,这在中度复杂型形态生理休眠种子中尚属首次发现。 2.木兰科6种植物种子休眠解除方法 在打破木兰科6种植物种子休眠促进其萌发的方法中,冷层积和GA浸泡方法均非常有效,但冷层积时间的长短因种而异,暖层积对种子休眠的作用甚微或根本无作用。流水冲洗和短期冷浸对川滇木莲、西康玉兰、云南含笑和灰岩含笑种子打破休眠没有作用,但可打破球花含笑种子休眠。硝酸钾仅对休眠程度非常浅的球花含笑种子有作用,可完全打破种子休眠。 干藏在4℃下,后熟作用可打破川滇木莲、灰岩含笑、球花含笑和云南含笑的种子休眠,而西康玉兰后熟100d并未打破种子休眠。 3.木兰科6种植物种子的贮藏习性和适宜贮藏条件 通过对川滇木莲、西康玉兰、灰岩含笑、黄兰、球花含笑和云南含笑种子进行不同脱水时间干燥后,测定其耐干性及分别贮藏于4℃和-20℃环境下2-3个 月后萌发率,根据判断种子贮藏习性的程序,对此6种木兰科植物种子进行种子贮藏习性的判断。川滇木莲、云南含笑种子可能为中间型种子,在-20℃下部分种子可保持生活力;西康玉兰可能为不耐零下低温的中间型种子,在-20℃下种子全部失活。灰岩含笑、黄兰和球花含笑可能为可忍耐零上低温的低度顽拗型种子。 由研究结果可知,木兰科6种植物种子均可忍耐零上低温,在4℃下贮藏2-3个月后,种子活力下降很少。因此,川滇木莲、西康玉兰、云南含笑、球花含笑、灰岩含笑和黄兰种子贮藏均适宜在4℃环境条件下,顽拗型种子(灰岩含笑、黄兰和球花含笑)可直接将新鲜种子密封贮藏于4℃下,中间型种子(川滇木莲、西康玉兰和云南含笑)可进行适度干燥(10%-15%)或直接密封贮藏于4℃下;低温(4℃)保湿贮藏法可有效保持种子生活力,且同时可进行层积作用打破种子休眠,促进种子萌发。 4.木兰科6种植物的离体培养和离体保存 本文采用木兰科望春玉兰、馨香玉兰、黄兰、乐昌含笑、多花含笑和球花含笑6种植物幼嫩的种子萌发苗作为外植体,诱导腋芽萌发生长,进行增殖及离体保存实验。通过对这6种植物的离体培养发现,低浓度的生长调节剂对芽苗的生长和增殖更为适宜;抗氧化剂抗坏血酸可缓和褐化作用的程度。由于外植体材料非常幼嫩,芽的诱导和增殖过程并不困难,但培养过程中,玻璃化、褐化及破碎愈伤组织的产生仍旧是木兰科植物离体培养存在的主要问题。 本研究选用三种不加激素的培养基对木兰科6种植物进行离体保存,加入活性炭可有效防止褐化,植株在三种培养基中生长缓慢但生长健壮,可有效保存半年甚至一年以上。 综上所述,黄兰是具形态休眠的低度顽拗型种子,灰岩含笑和球花含笑是具中度复杂型形态生理休眠的低度顽拗型种子,西康玉兰、川滇木莲和云南含笑为具中度复杂型形态生理休眠的中间型种子。保存木兰科种质资源的有效方法是采用低温干藏或低温保湿贮藏种子;在采用幼嫩外植体进行离体培养的情况下,加入活性碳的无激素培养基可有效保存木兰科植物的离体种质资源。
英文摘要: The seed dormancy, germination, storage behaviour, storage conditions, plant in vitro micropropagation and in vitro preservation of several Magnoliaceous plant species were studied in the present thesis. The seed dormancy types, breaking dormancy methods, storage behavior and appropriate storage conditions of Manglietia cuclouxii, Magnolia wilsonii, Michelia calcicola, M. champaca, M. sphaerantha and M. yunnanensis were tested and confirmed through seed biological approaches. Magnolia biondii, M. odoratissima, Michelia champaca, M. chapensis, M. floribunda and M. sphaerantha plants were cultured and conserved in vitro successfully. And an effective in vitro preservation method was developed. 1. Seed dormancy types of six Magnoliaceous species seeds Our research revealed that seeds of Michelia champaca were with morphological dormancy. Gibberellic acid could stimulate seeds germination of M. champaca. Seeds of Manglietia cuclouxii, Michelia calcicola, M. sphaerantha and M. yunnanensis belonged to the type of intermediate complex morphorphysiological dormancy. After-ripening, cold stratification and GA could break morphophysiological dormancy of seeds of above four species. The physiological dormancy among morphophysiological dormancy could be nondeep physiological dormancy. Seeds of Magnolia wilsonii had intermediate complex morphophysiological dormancy. After-ripening could not break dormancy of seeds of M. wilsonii, however, could shorten cold stratification time. The physiological dormancy of M. wilsonii could be intermediate physiological dormancy. Seeds of Manglietia cuclouxii and Michelia yunnanensis could have dormancy cycles, which was firstly found in intermediate morphophysiological dormancy. 2. Seed dormancy broken menthods of six Magnoliaceous species Cold stratification and GA could effectively overcome seeds dormancy of six Magnoliaceous species. Cold stratification time was different among six species. Warm stratification did not affect on seeds dormancy of six Magnoliaceous species. Washing and dipping in 4℃, and KNO3 could only break seed dormancy of Michelia sphaerantha. After-ripening could break seed dormancy of seeds of Manglietia cuclouxii, Michelia calcicola, M. sphaerantha and M. yunnanensis. After-ripening for 100d in 4 ℃, seeds dormancy of Magnolia wilsonii were not overcome. 3. Seed storage behaviour and appropriate storage conditions of six Magnoliaceous species Seeds of Manglietia cuclouxii, Magnolia wilsonii, Michelia calcicola, M. champaca, M. sphaerantha and M. yunnanensis were desiccated in different time. Seeds desiccation tolerance and storage condition (at 4℃ and -20℃ for 2-3 months) were tested through seed germination percentage. Seeds of Manglietia cuclouxii and Michelia yunnanensis could be intermediate seeds, which could survive partially at -20℃. Seeds of Magnolia wilsonii could be intermediate seeds which died at -20℃. Seeds of Michelia calcicola, M. champaca and M. sphaerantha could be low recalcitrant types which could tolerate low temperature above 0℃. The research showed seeds of six Magnoliaceous species could tolerate low temperature above 0℃. Seeds storaged for 2-3 months at 4℃ retained high viability. Therefore, seeds of six Magnoliaceous species are adapt to be storaged at 4℃. Fresh seeds of recalcitrant seeds (Michelia calcicola, M. champaca and M. sphaerantha) could be storaged at 4℃. Intermediate seeds (Manglietia cuclouxii and Michelia yunnanensis) could be desiccated to 10%-15% to be storaged at 4℃. Seeds could be storaged in moist medium in low temperature (4℃). 4. In vitro culture and preservation of six Magnoliaceous species Young seedlings of Magnolia biondii, M. odoratissima, and Michelia champaca, M. chapensis, M. floribunda and M. sphaerantha were cultured in vitro. Axillary shoot development was induct and multiplied. The research found low concentration of phytohormenes was favorable for growth and multiplication of shoots. L-Ascorbic acid could reduce damages of browning. In this research, explants induction and shoots multiplication were not difficult for young explants. However, vitrification, browning and broken callus were still the main problems in Magnoliaceae microprapogation. Three types of medium without hormones were chosen for in vitro preservation of six Magnoliaceous species. Active carbon could prevent browning of shoots. In three types of in vitro preservation medium, plants grew slowly but healthily and survived for half a year, and even for one year or longer. Our studies revealed: low recalcitrant seeds of Michelia champaca belonged to morphological dormancy; low recalcitrant seeds Michelia calcicola and Michelia sphaerantha belonged to intermediate complex morphophysiological dormancy; intermediate seeds of Manglietia cuclouxii, Magnolia wilsonii and Michelia yunnanensis belonged to intermediate complex morphophysiological dormancy. The effective preservation methods of Magnoliaceous resources were storaging seeds at low temperature in dry or moist environment. And the medium with free phytohormenes and active carbon could effectively preserve Magnoliaceous regenerated plants in vitro.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/186
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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木兰科几种植物种子休眠和种质资源保存的研究.韩春艳[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2008.20-25
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