几种滇产马先蒿引种栽培限制因子的研究
其他题名Studies on the Limiting Factors to the Introduction and Cultivation of Several Pedicularis Species from Yunnan Province
李爱荣
学位类型博士
导师管开云
2007-05-11
学位授予单位中国科学院昆明植物研究所
学位授予地点昆明植物研究所
学位专业植物学
关键词半寄生植物 菌根真菌 土壤肥力 非深度生理性种子休眠
摘要马先蒿属植物具有很高的观赏价值和生物学及药理学研究价值。然而,由于至今未能成功栽培,致使其开发利用受限。实践表明,传统研究模式中对其寄主植物的单因素分析无法成功解决马先蒿的栽培问题。本论文首次提出了在马先蒿引种栽培中应因种而异、进行多因素分析的观点,并首次指出了菌根真菌在马先蒿引种栽培中的潜在作用。 为探明滇产马先蒿的生长发育特性及其栽培限制因子,我们以云南省迪庆州香格里拉县(中甸县)的几种马先蒿为重点研究对象,进行了马先蒿寄生特性和菌根真菌定殖状况的系统调查,对马先蒿种子形态、种子萌发特性和休眠类型作了系统研究,并进行了多因素分析栽培试验。主要取得了以下结果: 1. 首次获得了马先蒿中国分布种具半寄生特性的试验性证据,并首次对马先蒿属植物的菌根真菌定殖状况进行了系统调查和定量分析。研究表明,多数滇产马先蒿兼具寄生和共生特性。马先蒿可以和三大类有益真菌建立联系,包括丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)、外生菌根真菌(EMF)和深色有隔内生真菌(DSE)。其中AMF是马先蒿的主导菌根真菌类群,在多数种类中定殖水平较高,表明这些真菌可能对马先蒿的生长发育有重要影响,在马先蒿栽培中有一定应用潜力。调查结果显示,菌根化可能是一些马先蒿吸收养分的另一种方式。 2. 首次对马先蒿属植物的种子形态及萌发特性进行了较为系统的研究和分析。结果表明,马先蒿种子的外种皮结构特征可作为新的种间分类依据;种子萌发特性存在较大种间差异,但所有种子的萌发均不依赖寄主植物。多数种类种子萌发对光照要求不严格,但湿生马先蒿种子萌发则表现出较强的需光性。砂纸打磨种皮是一种有效的人工促萌手段,而100和500 mg L-1浓度的GA3促萌效果不明显;多数马先蒿种子具休眠特性。休眠类型为非深度生理性休眠。多数种可经自然后熟打破休眠,而有些则需经低温层积处理才能达到较高萌发率。延长低温层积或自然后熟时间可以有效提高种子萌发速率。18~25 ℃是多数马先蒿较为理想的种子萌发温度。 3. 首次对几种马先蒿的栽培限制因子进行了多因素分析。结果表明,土壤肥力状况对马先蒿的生长发育影响显著,高肥力水平对马先蒿的前期生长和后期发育都十分有利;寄主植物和AMF对马先蒿生长发育的影响存在种间差异和生长阶段的差异;在昆明进行的栽培试验中,病虫危害对马先蒿的成苗和生长也造成了一定影响。
其他摘要Plants belonging to the genus Pedicularis L. have high ornamental values as well as significant biological and pharmacological research values. Unfortunately, cultivation of the genus has long been unsuccessful, which hinders their exploitation to a large extent. Experiments showed that the single-factor (i.e. host plant) cultivation model would not work successfully for the genus. In this thesis, multifactor analysis of specific species is suggested and the important roles of mycorrhizal fungi in the cultivation process of Pedicularis species are pointed out for the first time. To gain a better understanding of the growth characteristics of Pedicularis from Yunnan Province and the limiting factors to their cultivation, a series of experiments on the survey of their parasitic habit and mycorrhizal status, the micro-observation of seed morphology, the test of seed germination and dormancy, and the multiple-factor cultivation experiments were carried out, with several species distributed in Shangrila County as main study materials. The main results are as follows: 1. Parasitic habit of some Pedicularis from Yunnan Province was examined and experimental evidence of hemiparasitism for Chinese species was obtained for the first time. Also, in this thesis, Pedicularis was systematically and quantitatively surveyed for the first time from a mycorrhizal perspective. The results showed that most examined species could be parasitic and mycorrhizal simultaneously. Three types of potentially beneficial fungi associated with roots of these species were observed, namely arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) and dark septate endophytic fungi (DSE), with AMF as the dominating mycorrhizal fungi. AMF showed high colonization level in most studied species, suggesting a significant ecological role of these fungi and their potential to be applied to successful cultivation of these intractable plants. Our survey results also suggested that mycorrhization might serve as another nutrient strategy for some Pedicularis species. 2. Seed morphology and germination characteristics of Pedicularis species were studied systematically for the first time. Testa ornamentation and structure of the genus Pedicularis were found to have taxonomic values. There were some significant differences in germination characteristics among the tested Pedicularis species. But all tested species seemed to be independent of host plants for germination. For most species, no strict light requirement was detected. But wet habitat species generally had positive photoblastic responses. For many species, scarification was effective to promote seed germination, but neither 100 nor 500 mg L-1 GA3 had consistent promoting effect. The majority of fresh mature Pedicularis seeds were dormant to some extent. The dormancy showed by the tested Pedicularis species was nominated non-deep physiological dormancy. For most species, seed dormancy could be overcome by after-ripening after stored at room temperature for a period of time. For other species, however, cold stratification was necessary to gain a better germination performance. Our results also showed that seed germination performance could be promoted by elongating the time of cold stratification or after-ripening at room temperature. 18-25℃ was an ideal seed germination temperature range for most tested species. 3. Multifactor cultivation experiments were conducted for several Pedicularis species for the first time. The results showed that soil nutrient level had significant effect on growth of Pedicularis and high nutrient level favored the development of plants at both early growth stage and late growth stage. Complicated variation was detected both interspecifically and growth-stage-dependently concerning the effects of host plants and AMF on plant growth and development of Pedicularis. In addition, some plant diseases and pests affected seedling establishment and growth of Pedicularis in Kunming.
页数176
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/178
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李爱荣. 几种滇产马先蒿引种栽培限制因子的研究[D]. 昆明植物研究所. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2007.
条目包含的文件
文件名称/大小 文献类型 版本类型 开放类型 使用许可
10001_20041801061500(3456KB) 限制开放--请求全文
个性服务
推荐该条目
保存到收藏夹
查看访问统计
导出为Endnote文件
谷歌学术
谷歌学术中相似的文章
[李爱荣]的文章
百度学术
百度学术中相似的文章
[李爱荣]的文章
必应学术
必应学术中相似的文章
[李爱荣]的文章
相关权益政策
暂无数据
收藏/分享
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 

除非特别说明,本系统中所有内容都受版权保护,并保留所有权利。