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横断山区鸡肉参和黄波罗花的繁育生物学
艾洪莲
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor王红
2010-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral昆明
Degree Discipline植物学
Abstract

喜马拉雅-横断山区是世界高山植物多样性最丰富的区域之一,拥有许多特有类群。然而,目前对该地区特有植物的繁殖特性及其对高山环境适应机制的研究相对匮乏。角蒿属集中分布于喜马拉雅-横断山区。该属植物具有独特的花部特征是研究花部特征和传粉机制演化的理想类群。本文通过对角蒿属鸡肉参和黄波罗花两种植物繁殖生物学的研究,探讨了该属植物特殊的花部特征与传粉者相互关系,以及对高山环境的适应策略。1、鸡肉参的繁殖生物学:鸡肉参自交亲和,但必须依赖昆虫传粉进行繁殖。隧蜂(Halictus sp.)和蜜蜂(Apis cerana)是主要传粉者,其访花频率非常低。自然条件下,鸡肉参的坐果率较低,而结籽率较高;人工辅助异交使坐果率提高了3-4倍,但并没有增加其结籽率。因此,鸡肉参存在传粉者限制。花寿命的延长,持久的柱头可授性和花粉活力,是对传粉限制的补偿机制。鸡肉参自然居群的异交率较高(> 80%),交配系统以异交为主。雌雄异位避免了自动自交;敏感柱头闭合避免了传粉者导致的便利自交;小的花展示减少了同株异花授粉。因此,鸡肉参独特的花部特征有效避免了自交并促进了异交。鸡肉参近交衰退的累积效应值仅为0.094。因此,由传粉者导致的便利自交或同株异花授粉,在传粉昆虫稀少环境中能够确保鸡肉参种子生产,以维持种群稳定。2、黄波罗花的繁殖生物学:黄波罗花自交亲和,但必须依赖昆虫传粉产生种子。黄波罗花大的花展示保证了自然条件下较高的坐果率和结籽率。隧蜂作为主要的传粉者通常在同一植株上连续访问,从而导致同株异花授粉,带来近交衰退(累积近交衰退值为0.373)。花色变化减少了同株异花授粉。花色变化与花期有关,但授粉促进了花色变化。与黄花相比,红花里残留的花粉数量和花蜜含量都显著降低。访花昆虫倾向于访问含有较高报酬的黄花,而主动避开报酬含量少的红花。因此,花色变化显著降低了同株异花授粉,提高了传粉昆虫的传粉效率

Funding ProjectPlants respond to unpredictable alpine environments by a high degree of specialization in the structural and functional aspects of their flowers and pollination. However, few original data about the reproductive biology of these plants has been documented, particularly in the species-rich Himalaya-Hengduan Mountain regions. Incarvillea Juss. is notable for being a temperate and herbaceous member in the primarily tropical and woody family Bignoniaceae. Most species of the genus occur in alpine areas of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountain regions. We investigated the reproductive biology of two alpine species, I. mairei and I. lutea. Incarvillea mairei was highly self-compatible, but depended on pollinators for seed production. The main pollinators were Halictus sp and Apis sp. at low altitude, and bumblebee at high altitude. Seed production was severely limited by pollinators, as indicated by supplemental hand-pollination experiments. The extended floral longevity and stigma receptivity greatly compensated for pollinator limitation. Outcrossing rates were high from 0.834 to 0.988 with altitude and cumulative inbreeding depression was 0.088, indicating a predominant outcrossing mating system. The combination of floral traits (approach herkogamy, sensitive stigma, anther appendages) and pollinator activities ensure a remarkably efficient pollination mechanism, as well as make it possible to ensure reproduction success in alpine habitats. Incarvillea lutea is self-compatible, but depends on insects for seed production. Both the fruit and seed set were high under natural conditions. The main pollinator is Halictus sp. The larger floral displays of I. lutea received more visitations, but facilitated geitonogamous pollination simultaneously. The cumulative inbreeding depression was 0.373. The corolla tube changed color with age from yellow to red. Young yellow flowers had a significant greater pollen and nectar reward. The co-occurrence of the change in amount of reward and flower color enabled I. lutea to direct pollinators to visit reproductive, highly rewarding yellow flowers. We suggest floral color change in I. lutea may serve as a mechanism for reducing geitonogamous pollination and increasing the efficiency of pollen transfer to enhance plant fitness.
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/16202
Collection昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
艾洪莲. 横断山区鸡肉参和黄波罗花的繁育生物学[D]. 昆明. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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