香水月季的保护遗传学研究
孟静
学位类型博士
导师李德铢
2010-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位专业植物学
摘要香味是月季品种选育中非常重要的性状,但是在目前多达25,000个品种中,大部分都没有或只有轻微香味。现代月季中的茶香味主要来源于香水月季(Rosa odorata (Andrews) Sweet),该种是现代栽培月季中最重要的祖先之一,是非常重要的月季育种资源。但是,近年来,由于耕地扩张以及生境片断化等原因,导致该物种濒临灭绝。香水月季在《中国植物红皮书──稀有濒危植物》中被列为濒危植物,在《中国珍稀濒危保护植物名录──第一册》被列为国家三级保护植物。由于对香水月季的保护迫在眉睫,非常有必要对该种开展保护遗传学研究。香水月季种下包括三个重瓣变种——香水月季(R. odorata var. odorata)、粉红香水月季(R. odorata var. erubescens)和桔黄香水月季(R. odorata var. pseudindica),以及一个单瓣变种──大花香水月季(R. odorata var. gigantea)。三个重瓣变种的分类学地位存在争议,它们曾经被不同的学者作为大花香水月季或月季的种下分类单元处理。Hurst(1941)通过形态学性状分析,推测香水月季原变种是大花香水月季与月季的杂交种。为了确定正确的保护单元,本文首先选取两个单拷贝核基因(GAPDH和ncpGS)以及两个叶绿体片段(trnL-F和psbA-trnH)对香水月季三个重瓣变种的杂交起源和可能的亲本进行研究。研究结果表明,香水月季三个重瓣变种为杂交起源;我们推测,大花香月季应该是香水月季三个重瓣变种的母本,而栽培月季是其可能的父本。对香水月季种质资源的保护,归根究底要加强对其野生亲本──大花香水月季的保护。我们首次采用微卫星分子标记(SSR)结合单拷贝核基因GAPDH单倍型分析的方法对大花香水月季进行了遗传多样性和遗传结构研究,主要的研究结果如下:1. 遗传多样性:大花香水月季居群内和居群间都保持了较高水平的遗传多样性(SSR:HT = 0.738,HS = 0.569,AR = 5.583,PPB = 97.35%,I = 1.703;GAPDH:HT = 0.739,HS = 0.540)。我们推测,异交、长寿命木本植物、无性繁殖以及个体间普遍的种内杂交现象是大花香水月季维持较高遗传多样性的主要原因。2. 遗传分化和遗传结构:各居群间产生了一定的遗传分化(SSR:GST = 0.229,FST = 0.240;GAPDH:GST = 0.269)。我们推测,可能是地理隔离导致的花粉或者种子长距离传播受限限制了居群之间的基因交流(Nm = 0.792),从而导致了居群间一定的遗传分化。基于微卫星数据和单拷贝核基因GAPDH单倍型分析的结果都将大花香水月季的所有居群划分为红河东西两侧明显的两个组,而且这两个组间具有显著的遗传分化,是两个独立的进化谱系,应该作为两个“进化显著单元”(ESUs)来看待。3. 香水月季种质资源的保护:大花香水月季已经被列入“国家重点保护野生植物名录(第二批)”,对该种实施保护措施刻不容缓。我们推测,导致大花香水月季濒危的主要原因是环境破坏、人类活动等导致的生境片断化以及居群数量和居群内个体数目的减少,而不是遗传基础。我们建议就地保护和迁地保护相结合的策略。
资助项目Flower scent is a very important character in rose breeding. However, many of 25,000 rose cultivars have no scent or weak scent. The tea scent of modern roses mainly originated from Rosa odorata (Andrews) Sweet, which is one of the most important ancestors of modern cultivated roses and the very important rose breeding resource. Due to the land expanding, habitat fragmentation and so on, R. odorata has been listed as an endangered species in ‘Chinese Plant Red Data Book—Rare and Endangered Plants’ and as the third-category endangered species in ‘Chinese Rare and Endangered Protective Plants List’. Therefore, it is urgent to protect this species and studying the conservation genetics of R. odorata is essentially important to work out a strategy of conservation.R. odorata comprises three double-petaled varieties (R. odorata var. odorata, R. odorata var. erubescens, and R. odorata var. pseudindica) and one single-petaled variety (R. odorata var. gigantea). The taxonomy of the three double-petaled varieties of R. odorata has been disputed for a long time. They have been treated as intraspecific taxa of R. odorata var. gigantea or R. chinensis by different botanist. According to the morphological analyses, Hurst (1941) inferred that R. odorata var. odorata was the hybrid between R. odorata var. gigantea and R. chinensis. Therefore, in order to clarify the right protective units, two single-copy nuclear genes (GAPDH and ncpGS), together with two plastid loci (trnL-F and psbA-trnH) were applied to study the hybrid origin of the three double-petaled varieties and to identify their possible parents. Our data suggested the hybrid origin of the three double-petaled varieties. We inferred that R. odorata var. gigantea could be the maternal parent and R. chinensis cultivars be the paternal parent. It is strongly suggested that the conservation of R. odorata is the conservation of its wild type, R. odorata var. gigantea. We first applied seven microsatellite loci (SSR) coupled with a single-copy nuclear gene GAPDH to study the genetic diversity and genetic structure of R. odorata var. gigantea. The main results are shown as follows:1. Genetic diversity:R. odorata var. gigantea maintains high degree of genetic diversity within and among populations (SSR: HT = 0.738, HS = 0.569, AR = 5.583, PPB = 97.35%, I = 1.703; GAPDH: HT = 0.739, HS = 0.540). We inferred that, outcrossing, long-lived tree species, clonal reproduction and general intraspecies hybridization between individuals, have contributed to the high degree of genetic diversity in R. odorata var. gigantea.2. Genetic differentiation and genetic structure:There was some degree of genetic differentiation among populations (SSR: GST = 0.229, FST = 0.240; GAPDH: GST = 0.269). The geographic isolation limited the dispersal of pollen or seeds, which resulted in the limitation of gene flow (Nm = 0.792). Then, the limited gene flow should be accounted for the genetic differentiation. Both the results of SSR data and haplotype analysis of GAPDH indicated that, the studied populations were divided into two distinct groups by Honghe River. These two groups showed significant genetic differentiation and represented two separate evolutionary lineages, which should be recognized as two evolutionary significant units (ESUs) for conservation concerns.3. Conservation of R. odorata:R. odorata var. gigantea has been listed in the ‘National Key Protective Wild Species List (II)’. Therefore, the conservation of this species is urgent. We inferred that, the main endangered reasons should be the habitat fragmentation and the reduction of populations and individuals per population resulted from environmental damage and human activities. We proposed that the strategy of in-situ conservation combining with ex-situ conservation should be carried out.
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/16162
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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孟静. 香水月季的保护遗传学研究[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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