叶相-气候中国模型的建立及上新世羊街植物群的研究 
苏涛 
学位类型博士
导师周浙昆 
2010-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位专业植物学
摘要本论文通过基于中国湿润和半湿润地区从南至北的50个森林植被采样点叶相和气候数据,建立了叶相—气候中国模型。同时,研究了云南西部永平县上上新统三营组羊街植物群的物种组成。另外,定量重建了羊街植物群的古气候,并开展了该植物群古帽斗栎(Quercus preguyavaefolia Tao)和前灰背栎(Q. presenescens Zhou)这两个优势种的昆虫取食学研究。本论文取得了如下6个方面的研究成果:1. 采用回归分析建立叶相—气候中国模型: 通过中国从南至北湿润和半湿润区域的50个森林植被采样点叶相和气候数据,建立了基于木本双子叶植物全缘叶物种百分比和年均温的全缘叶—年均温中国模型。通过多种回归分析方法对叶相参数与降雨量参数的相关性进行了讨论,首次提出基于中国植被的叶相—降雨参数回归模型。2. 气候—叶相多变量分析中国数据库(PHYSGCHINA)的建立: 基于上述中国50个采样点叶相和气候数据,补充了气候—叶片多变量分析程序(Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program,CLAMP)中缺少的中国植被数据,建立了一个基于中国50个采样点和已有的北美、日本144个采样点叶相和气候数据的数据库:气候—叶相多变量分析中国数据库(PHYSGCHINA)。3. 叶相—气候中国模型定量重建古气候: 利用本研究建立的叶相—气候中国模型,定量重建了中国新生代不同地质时期植物群的古气候。古气候重建结果表明:始新世时期,中国经历了和全球气候大致相同的气温变化趋势。古气候研究的结果还表明,云南在晚上新世时期的气温和现在相似,而具有明显更高的降雨量。4. 滇西上上新统三营组羊街植物群: 羊街植物群的物种组成表明,该植物群是以高山栎组植物占绝对优势的植被类型。羊街植物群的发现进一步证明了新近纪云南西部的植被演变历史。同时,在羊街植物群中发现了槲蕨属化石并获得了原位孢子,该化石种定名为美孢槲蕨(Drynaria callispora sp. nov.),这是目前最为确切的槲蕨属化石的首次报道。5. 羊街植物群的古气候重建: 通过基于中国植被数据建立的叶缘—年均温中国模型、叶缘—生长季节降雨量中国模型和气候—叶片多变量分析中国模型定量重建了羊街植物群的古气候。研究结果表明,永平地区在晚上新世具有比现在略高的气温,而降雨量明显高于现在。6. 羊街植物群昆虫取食学的初步研究: 初步研究了羊街植物群古帽斗栎和前灰背栎这两个优势种叶片化石的昆虫取食现象。研究表明,植被群落中的优势种具有更多的昆虫取食类型,并且物种单一的植被群落中昆虫取食的专一性更高。另外,该植物群昆虫取食类型的组成和叶片单位面积生物量反映了当时该地区温暖的气候面貌。
资助项目The relationship between leaf physiognomy and climate is widely used to reconstruct paleoclimates of Cenozoic floras. Previous works demonstrate that LMA show regional constraints. Until now, no equation has been set up directly from Chinese forests. This relationship is exhaustively studied based on 50 samples from mesic to humid forests across China. Models including Leaf Margin Analysis (LMA), Single Linear regression for Precipitation, and Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP), are set up and used to quantitatively reconstruct paleoclimates of Chinese Neogene floras. Meanwhile, a paleoflora, i.e., Yangjie flora, which belongs to the Upper Pliocene Sanying formation in West Yunnan Province, is studied. The species assemblage, paleoclimate and paleoecology of Yangjie flora are discussed. Conclusions in this dissertation are as following: 1. Chinese leaf physiognomy-climate models based on regression analyses,LMA is a widely used method that applies present-day linear correlation between the proportion of woody dicotyledonous species with untoothed leaves (P) and mean annual temperature (MAT) to estimate paleotemperatures from fossil leaf floras. The Chinese data indicate that P shows a strong linear correlation with MAT, but the actual relationship is slightly different from those recognized from other regions. Among all currently used LMA equations, the one resulting from North and Central American and Japanese data, rather than the widely used East Asian LMA equation, yields the closest values to the actual MATs of the Chinese samples (mean absolute error = 1.9°C). A new equation derived from the Chinese forests is therefore developed, where MAT = 1.038 + 27.6 × P. This study not only demonstrates the similarity of the relationship between P and MAT in the Northern Hemisphere, but also improves the reliability of LMA for paleoclimate reconstructions of Chinese paleofloras. Besides, regression analyses are used to explore the relationship between leaf physiognomy and precipitation. In contrast to former studies, entire leaf margin shows the highest correlation with the Growing Season Precipitation (GSP). A new equation is proposed: GSP = 228.0 + 1707.0 × P. 2. The new calibrated CLAMP dataset – PHYSGCHINA,CLAMP, which is based on canonical correspondence analysis, is improved by the inclusion of 50 Chinese samples. The result indicates that, new calibrated data from 50 Chinese sample sites are situated away from the former 144 samples in the physiognomic space, which may be caused by the unique characters of leaf physiognomy under monsoon condition. Therefore, a new calibrated CLAMP dataset, i.e., PHYSGCHINA, is set up based on 50 new Chinese samples, and 144 former samples from PHYSG3BRC. This new dataset could improve the accuracy of paleoclimate reconstructions for floras under the monsoon climate condition. When it is applied to Chinese Neogene floras, PHYSGCHINA could improve the accuracy of paleoclimate parameters, especially parameters related to precipitation. 3. Paleoclimate reconstructions of Chinese Cenozoic floras,Paleoclimates of Chinese Cenozoic floras are reconstructed using leaf physiognomy- climate models being set up in this study. The Chinese paleoclimate history in Eocene is similar to the trend from worldwide record. That is, hot climate presented in early Eocene and early Middle Eocene, and then, climate cooled down from late Middle Eocene to Late Eocene in China. Moreover, paleoclimates of two Late Miocene floras from Yunnan province, i.e., Xiaolongtan flora and Bangmai flora, are reconstructed using different models. The results indicate that, temperature of Yunnan is slightly higher than that in nowadays, but the precipitation is much higher than that at present day, which may be caused by the uplift of Hengduan Mountain. 4. Late Pliocene Yangjie flora in West Yunnan Province, China,A Late Pliocene Yangjie flora form Yongping County, western Yunnan province, which belongs to Sanying formation, is studied in this dissertation. Yangjie flora is dominated by Quercus sect. Heterobalanus (Oerst.) Menits. (evergreen sclerophyllous oaks), and this forest type is quite common in SW China at present. The discovery of Yangjie flora provides evidence that, vegetations of Yunnan in Miocene were dominated by evergreen forests, and the dominant families were Fabaceae, Fagaceae and Lauraceae. In Pliocene, this vegetation type changed gradually to evergreen sclerophyllous oak forests. This vegetation change may have been caused by the uplift of Hengduan Mountain in Neogene. A polypodiaceous fern, Drynaria callispora sp. nov., is described from the upper Pliocene Sanying Formation in western Yunnan Province, southwestern China. The species with well-preserved pinnae and in situ spores is the first convincing Drynaria fossil record. Detailed morphological investigation reveals that D. callispora is characterized by 1) pinnatifid fronds with entire-margined pinnae having straight or zigzag secondary veins; 2) finer venation showing void quadrangular areoles, but occasionally with one unbranched veinlet; 3) one row of circular sori on each side of the strong primary vein; and 4) in situ spores with verrucate exospores elliptical in polar view and bean-shaped in equatorial view. A morphological comparison shows that D. callispora is significantly different from all the fossil species previously identified as drynarioids. A phylogenetic analysis of D. callispora supports that the fossil is closely related to D. sinica Diels and D. mollis Bedd., two extant species distributing in the Himalayas. The discovery of the new fern indicates that the genus Drynaria became diversified in its modern distribution region no later than the late Pliocene and had retained the similar ecology to that of many modern drynarioid ferns ever since. 5. Paleoclimate reconstruction of Yangjie flora,LMA, Single Linear Regression for Precipitation and PHYSGCHINA are applied to reconstruct paleoclimate of Yangjie flora. MAT calculated by LMA and CLAMP is 22.0 ± 2.4°C and 20.0 ± 1.4°C, respectively, and GSP calculated by Single Linear Regression for Precipitation and PHYSGCHINA is 1521.9 ± 131.3 mm and 2084.7 ± 223.1 mm, respectively All methods agree that, both temperature and precipitation were higher in Late Pliocene than in nowadays. Meanwhile, precipitation parameters calculated by CLAMP gets high values. 6. Preliminary study of insect herbivory in Yangjie flora,Insect herbivory on leaves of Quercus preguyavaefolia Tao and Q. presenescens Zhou, two dominant species in Yangjie flora, is reported by the preliminary research. Each of these two species has a high diversity of insect damage. Among all damage types, margin feeding and surface feeding are most common, and skeletonization, piercing and sucking, and galling are less found. Most of these damage types belonge to the high host specialization (HS = 1). However, the proportion of leaves without insect damage in Q. presenescens is much higher than that in Q. preguyavaefolia. According to the log-log linear regression model, both Quercus preguyavaefolia and Q. presenescens have very high leaf mass per area (with 184.8 ± 6.7 g/m2 and 155.3 ± 10.7 g/m2, respectively). The high diversity of insect herbivory demonstrates a warm climate in the Late Pliocene of West Yunnan Province.
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文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/16150
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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苏涛 . 叶相-气候中国模型的建立及上新世羊街植物群的研究 [D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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