香格里拉藏族传统农业生态系统研究兼论多用途植物地涌金莲遗传多样性研究
杨春燕
学位类型博士
导师龙春林
2010-01
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位专业植物学
摘要本论文通过结合民族植物学、文化人类学和植物生态学多种工作方法,对香格里拉县小中甸镇进行了定点调查,并结合建塘镇汉批村的走访调查,对香格里拉传统农业生态系统的结构、特征进行了研究,并总结分析了该地区藏族对传统农业生态系统的管理及其对当地生物多样性的影响。结果显示:香格里拉的传统农业生态系统属于农林牧复合系统。农林牧复合系统是依照当地自然生态环境而所呈现出的一种立体布局形式,农田、森林和牧场三个子系统形成有益的相互补充。香格里拉藏族的传统季节性轮牧尾随着季节的变化和植物的复苏递进过程而进行的一种可持续的,有益于生物多样性保护的管理方式。近年来轮牧传统的衰退,使牲畜集中在亚高山草甸地带,导致了草地退化。神山文化,作为当地藏族传统文化的一个重要组成部分,对传统农林牧复合系统中的人类的行为起到了规范和约束的作用,并对当地的生物多样性保护起到了积极的作用。香格里拉的藏族传统文化和知识及其对生态系统的传统管理方式对该地区生物多样性保护作出了积极的贡献,但研究结果同时表明,在外来文化和市场经济的冲击下,当地对传统农业生态系统的管理知识正在消失,传统作物品种逐渐减少、土地利用方式趋向单一化、季节性轮牧传统消退、民族文化向单一化发展,而多样向单一化的转变对当地的生态环境必将产生很多不利的影响。本文就如何将藏族传统知识和管理经验结合到现代农业的可持续发展提出了建议。本论文还对芭蕉科(Musaceae)地涌金莲属植物地涌金莲(Musella lasiocarpa (Franch) C. Y. We ex H. W. Li)进行了居群遗传多样性分析。由于长期栽培和生境的片段化,使得地涌金莲的野生居群已十分稀少。本研究通过广泛的走访调查,采集了丽江、大理、四川等地区的5个野生居群和5个栽培居群的地涌金莲。并利用SSR分子标记对居群的遗传多样性进行了分析。利用磁珠富集并结合部分AFLP技术的FIASCO法对地涌金莲进行了SSR引物开发。从设计的42对引物中筛选出有效扩增引物28对,其中表明多态性的引物有17对。利用其中的8对引物对地涌金莲的5个野生居群和5个栽培居群进行了遗传结构及遗传多样性分析。结果显示:SSR分子标记揭示了地涌金莲的遗传多样性较高。野生居群的遗传多样性水平高于栽培居群的遗传多样性。野生居群与栽培居群的遗传多样性差异与两种居群所采取的不同繁殖方式有关。地涌金莲居群间存在较大的遗传分化(Gst=0.3488)。AMOVA分析显示,地涌金莲的遗传变异37.19%存在于居群间,62.81%的遗传变异存在于居群内。居群间遗传分化的产生主要与居群间的基因交流受到限制有关。POPGENE分析得出的地涌金莲的基因流为0.4916,表明各居群间存在较少的基因交流,较低的基因流是地涌金莲居群间遗传分化的重要原因。
资助项目Xiaozhongdian, a town of Shangri-la County, Diqing Prefecture, was chosen as the main field site for studying the structure and characters of traditional agricultural ecosystem, by using approaches of ethnobotany, cultural anthropology and ecology. Combined with interviewing exercises in Hanpi village, Jiantang Township, this paper also discussed the impact of traditional management on the biocultural diversity. The results showed: Traditional agroecosystem in Shangri-la is an integrated system with three subsystems, which are farming, forest and grazing subsystem. The seasonal shifting grazing activity in Shangri-la, following the natural season change and the recover process of plants, is a sustainable management that protects the local biodiversity. However, along with the decay of shifting grazing tradition recently, the local Tibetans turned to use grass land and forest which is close to villages as the main grazing lands. It increased the pasturing pressure to these areas and caused productivity decreasing and biodiversity. As a symbolic part of Tibetan culture in Shangri-la, the sacred mountain culture has played a significant role in biodiversity conservation by restricting human’s behavior. The Tibetan traditional culture, indigenous knowledge and traditional ecosystem management in Shangri-la has contributed to the biodiversity conservation in this area. However, this research indicated that under the pressure of mainstream culture and market economy, traditional knowledge is vanishing; old crop land races are decreasing; diverse land use management is inclining to be single and seasonal shifting grazing tradition is fading away. The change of diversity to singularity might cause some negative impacts on the local environment and ecosystem. In this paper, advices were also given on how to combine Tibetan traditional knowledge and management experiences into sustainable development of modern agriculture. In this thesis, genetic diversity of Musella lasiocarpa (Franch.) C. Y. Wu ex H. W. Li, a plant endemic to southwest China, was also discussed through the approach of SSR markers. The wild populations of M. lasiocarpa are very rare now due to the habitat fragment and long time human’s disturbance. By conducting broad field investigation, we have found 5 wild populations near the boarder of Yunnan and Sichuan province. Seventeen microsatellite markers were isolated from M. lasiocarpa by using FIASCO method. 8 primers were selected to do the further genetic population structure and genetic diversity analysis. The results showed that genetic diversity of M. lasiocarpa’s wild populations is higher than cultivated populations. The genetic diversity difference between wild and cultivated populations is related to the different reproduction systems. Adopting the way of asexuality reproduction, the genetic basis of cultivated populations become narrow that decrease the genetic diversity. AMOVA analysis showed that 37.19% genetic differentiation is among populations and 62.81% is within population. Genetic differentiation among different populations is related to the limited gene communication. POPGENE analysis indicated that there is very little gene flow among different populations (0.4916), which is the main reason of high genetic differentiation among M. lasiocarpa populations.
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/16128
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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杨春燕. 香格里拉藏族传统农业生态系统研究兼论多用途植物地涌金莲遗传多样性研究[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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