东亚特有"翅茎草复合群"的分子系统学--兼论鼻花族果实和种子形态学 
董莉娜 
学位类型博士
导师王红 
2010-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位专业植物学
摘要本论文选择鼻花族在东亚特有分布的“翅茎草复合群”(Pterygiella complex),即:翅茎草属(Pterygiella Oliver)、马松蒿属(Xizangia D.Y. Hong)、松蒿属 (Phtheirospermum Bunge ex Fischer & C.A. Meyer)和五齿萼属 (Pseudobartsia D.Y. Hong)为研究对象。对该复合群的分子系统发育、翅茎草属种间关系以及传统鼻花族果实和种子形态进行了比较研究。基于已有列当科的分子系统学研究,应用核基因片段(PHYA序列和ITS序列)和叶绿体片段(rpl16序列和trnL-F序列)重建“翅茎草复合群”在列当科的系统发育关系,并在此基础上,应用叶绿体片段(atpB-rbcL、atpH-I、psbA-trnH、rpl16、trnL-F和trnS-G序列)构建“翅茎草复合群”属间系统发育关系。结果表明叶绿体片段和核片段均支持“翅茎草复合群”不是一个单系类群,可以划分为两个不同的分支。分支I包括了该复合群的大部分类群,即翅茎草属、马松蒿属、五齿萼属和松蒿属(除松蒿);该分支的类群狭域分布于东喜马拉雅—横断山区域。分支II只包括松蒿属的松蒿 (Phtheirospermum japonicum (Thunberg) Kanitz),为松蒿属中的异质成员,该种或可从松蒿属提升为单独的属。分子系统学研究结果支持给予五齿萼即具腺松蒿和马松蒿即齿叶翅茎草以属级位置的分类处理。基于以上研究,应用分子系统学、DNA条形码和形态特征统计进行翅茎草属种间关系的研究。研究表明翅茎草属可分为3个主要分支。其中,不同居群的杜氏翅茎草分为两个分支,即分支I和II;翅茎草应该包括杜氏翅茎草分支I,其共有特征为茎上具有腺毛或短的非腺毛。分支III包括两个种:圆茎翅茎草和川滇翅茎草,其种内和种间的形态变异和遗传距离均不支持将两者分开;因此,建议将川滇翅茎草置于圆茎翅茎草中或作为圆茎翅茎草的一个变种。综上,茎形态、叶脉数目和茎被毛情况是识别翅茎草属不同种的关键性状。通过对DNA核心条形码在翅茎草属种的鉴别效力的比较,建议ITS-2序列信息和二级结构特征均可直接作为翅茎草属种的鉴定的条形码,为解决种间关系提供有效的信息。传统鼻花族21属49种和列当科相关类群9属9种的成熟果实和种子进行光镜和电镜观察,并对25个性状进行主成分分析和对其具有的系统学意义进行比较。研究表明:根据种子外部形态、种子内部径向壁和种子外表皮细胞增厚网状的类型可以将鼻花族区分为4个类型6个亚型;翅茎草属、松蒿属、五齿萼属和马松蒿属之间果实和种子特征变异程度比较相似,但马松蒿的果实具有多细胞的毛、种子网状膜质化,这些特征明显区别与翅茎草属。松蒿组中的细裂叶松蒿与小齿组中的黑籽松蒿的果实和种子形态表现出较多的相似性;松蒿组中的松蒿与该属其他类群在种子形态表现出异质性。果实和形态学特征支持五齿萼和马松蒿作为单型属处理,并提示松蒿可能为松蒿属中的异质成员
资助项目In the present study, we focused on “Pterygiella complex”, included Pterygiella Oliver, Xizangia D.Y. Hong, Phtheirospermum Bunge ex Fischer & C.A. Meyer, and Pseudobartsia D.Y. Hong, which is endemic to Eastern Asia. Based on chloroplast and nuclear sequences, we explored their phylogeny relationships within Orobanchaceae, the species relations within Pterygiella, and fruit and seed morphology of traditional tribe Rhinantheae. The phylogeny of “Pterygiella complex” was reconstructed based on nuclear and chloroplast sequences within the family Orobanchaceae. The genera relationship within the complex was reconstructed based on chloroplast sequences of atpB-rbcL, atpH-I, psbA-trnH, rpl16, trnL-F and trnS-G. The results showed that “Pterygiella complex” was not a natural group and could be divided into two different clades. Clade I included most taxa, e.g. Pterygiella, Xizangia, Pseudobartsia, Phtheirospermum (exclude P. japonicum). The species of this clade were endemic to East-Himalaya and Hengduan Mountains region. Clade II included Phtheirospermum japonicum (Thunberg) Kanitz, which was a heterogeneous member in genus Phtheirospermum and should be treated as a new monotypic genus. The results supported that Pterygiella bartschioides Hand.-Mazz. and Phtheirospermum glandulosum Benth. should be elevated to genus level as Xizangia and Pseudobartsia, respectively.Furthermore, we focused on the genus Pterygiella to explore the species’ circumscription by molecular phylogeny, DNA barcodes and morphological studies. The results suggested that Pterygiella should divide into three clades. P. duclouxii was divided into clade I and clade II, and P. nigrescens was included the clade I of these P. duclouxii taxa, with which it shares eglandular hairs on the stem. Clade III included P. suffruticosa and P. cylindrica, while the level of inter- and intra-species variation in two species did not support their distinction. Therefore, P. suffruticosa should move into or considered as a variety of P. cylindrica. The form of stem, leaf veins and the indumentum of stems are key traits for circumscribing the species within the genus. By comparing the effectiveness with core DNA barcodes, ITS-2 can be used as suitable DNA barcode in the genus Pterygiella.Fruit and seed characteristics of 49 species in 21 genera of the tribe Rhinantheae and 9 species in 9 genera of Orobachaceae were examined. 25 characters were selected and analyzed by principal component analysis for discovering the systematic significances. The results suggested four main types and six subtypes were distinguished based on gross seed coat appearance, inner tangential wall and thickenings of radial wall. Fruit and seed data reflect the close relationships within “Pterygiella complex”. While, Xizangia was distinctly different from Pterygiella. Phtheirospermum tenuisectum was more similar to the member of section minutisepala within the genus Phtheiroseprmum. Phtheirospermum japonicum was heterogeneous within the genus Phtheirospermum. On the whole, fruit and seed data supported Xizangia and Pseudobartsia as a genus rank and Phtheirospermum japonicum was a heterogeneous member in Phtheirospermum
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/16090
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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董莉娜 . 东亚特有"翅茎草复合群"的分子系统学--兼论鼻花族果实和种子形态学 [D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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