几种马先蒿的半寄生特性及其引种栽培
任永权
学位类型博士
导师管开云
2010-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位专业植物学
摘要马先蒿属(Pedicularis L.)植物具有很高的园艺价值,生物学及药理学研究价值,但由于至今未能成功突破该属植物的栽培难关,致使其开发利用受到严重限制。本论文以该属植物的半寄生特性作切入点,首次比较系统地研究了马先蒿属植物的寄生特性,并首次利用寄主植物完成三种马先蒿:密穗马先蒿(Pedicularis densispica)、头花马先蒿(Pedicularis cephalantha)和大王马先蒿(Pedicularis rex)的全生活史栽培。本论文选取几种有代表性的马先蒿作为重点研究对象,从对马先蒿的植被调查入手,结合种子萌发和引种栽培试验,系统地研究了马先蒿的寄生特性以及其在引种栽培在中的应用。主要取得了以下结果:1. 马先蒿种子具有浅度到中度的生理性休眠,这种休眠能被冷层积和赤霉素处理打破。冷层积30-60天,或者500-1000mg/L赤霉素处理能够获得较高的发芽率,冷层积15天,或者1000mg/L赤霉素处理能够获得较低的平均发芽时间。冷层积和赤霉素处理的联合应用对于促进萌发更为有效。用500-1000mg/L赤霉素处理后再进行15-30天冷层积能获得最高发芽率,用100-1000mg/L赤霉素处理后再进行15天冷层积能获得最低平均发芽时间。种子萌发基本上不构成引种栽培的障碍。2. 首次系统地研究了马先蒿的寄生范围和寄主选择性。结果表明,密穗马先蒿的寄主范围相当广泛,包括14个科的33个种,基本上在调查的大部分植物根部都能形成吸器。菊科、禾本科和豆科植物是密穗马先蒿群落中的主要成分,也是密穗马先蒿的主要寄主。对吸器数的χ2检验表明,吸器在寄主之间的分布不是随机的,密穗马先蒿显示出较强的寄主选择性。禾本科的Roegneria sp.和Poa sp.,莎草科的Kobresia sp.是密穗马先蒿偏好的寄主。从科的高度而言,禾本科,莎草科和菊科植物是密穗马先蒿偏好的寄主植物。种间联结分析的结果在一定程度上支持对吸器数的χ2 检验结论,相关性分析结果支持对吸器数的χ2 检验结果,是更为可靠的分析方法。3. 首次完成了三种马先蒿的全生活史的栽培。结果表明,马先蒿表现出强烈的寄主依赖性和一定的寄主选择性。在幼苗期,马先蒿可以不依赖寄主而存活,但要完成全部生活周期,马先蒿强烈依赖寄主植物。三种马先蒿在有寄主伴生时的所有生长指标均显著高于对照。不同的马先蒿显示出不同的寄主选择偏好。对寄主的修剪处理能在一定程度上降低竞争作用,促进马先蒿的生长,但影响不显著。马先蒿的寄生显著降低了寄主自身的重量。有寄主伴生时,三种马先蒿均能开花结果,完成从种子到种子的全部生活史。花性状与原生境相比没有明显差异,保持着较好的观赏性。
资助项目Plants in the genus of Pedicularis L. have high values in horticulture and some species are medicinal plants. However, they have a reputation for being uncultivable, which is an obstacle for their exploitation and utilization. In this dissertation, the hemiparasitism of Pedicularis species was studied systematically for the first time, and the successful cultivation of three Pedicularis species (Pedicularis densispica,Pedicularis cephalantha and Pedicularis rex) throughout all life stages was achieved for the first time. With several representative species as main study materials, a series of experiments on seed germination, vegetation survey in Pedicularis communities, and pot cultivation were carried out. We studied Pedicularis parasitic habit systematically and aimed to achieve progress in the cultivation of Pedicularis species based on the understanding of their parasitic habit. The main results are as follows:1. The dormancy showed by the tested Pedicularis species was non-deep physiological dormancy. Seed dormancy could be overcome by moist-chilling and GA3. Cold stratification for 30-60 days, or 500-1000 mg/L GA3 were the optimal treatments for germination percentage, and stratification for 15 days, or 1000 mg/L GA3 were the optimal treatments for mean germination time. The combination of cold stratification and GA3 were more effective measures to promote seed germination. The optimal germination conditions varied with species, while as a whole, the highest germination percentages were obtained from treatments of 500-1000 mg/L GA3 followed by 15-30 days stratification, and the lowest values of mean germination time were obtained from treatments of 100-1000mg/L GA3 followed by 15-day stratification. Seed germination was not the obstacle for the cultivation of Pedicularis species.2. Host range and host selectivity of a Pedicularis species were studied systematically for the first time. Examinations of haustorial connections revealed that P. densispica had a wide host range, and it can form haustorial connections on the roots of 33 species belonging to 14 families. Compositae (8 species), Gramineae (5 species) and Leguminosae (5 species) species comprised major hosts. In addition, self-parasitism was observed. Haustoria were non-randomly distributed among host species, suggesting that there was some host selectivity. P. densispica generally preferred species in the families of Gramineae and Cyperaceae. The results of association analysis and correlation analysis based on vegetation survey supported the result of examinations of haustorial connections. And correlation analysis was a better way to test host selectivity.3. This is the first report for the performance of Pedicularis species in cultivation throughout all life stages (from seeds to seeds). The high dependence of Pedicularis specieson host plants and their host preference were demonstrated in this study. Pedicularis speciesstrongly depended on host presence, while host plants were essential to Pedicularis speciesnot for survival but for proper development. Different Pedicularis species preferred to different hosts. Host defoliation was a useful promoting measure for the cultivation of Pedicularis species. Pedicularis species reduced the performance of host plants. With the assistance of hosts, three Pedicularis species were cultivated successfully and they retained high horticulture quality.
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/16062
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
任永权. 几种马先蒿的半寄生特性及其引种栽培[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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