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题名: 中国西南的乳菇属:分类、个体发育与区系地理
作者: 王向华
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2008-05-30
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 刘培贵
关键词: 孢子 ; 地理分布 ; 盖表皮 ; 盖表皮发育 ; 乳菇属
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 乳菇属为担子菌亚门的一个大属,具有重要的科学、生态、经济价值。本研究之前,中国缺乏对该属真菌的专著性研究工作。结合该属真菌的自身特点,采用现代伞菌分类学研究方法,对中国西南云、贵、川、藏的乳菇属真菌进行了全面的分类学研究。在研究2000余份标本的基础上,最终确认中国西南地区乳菇属真菌共计95个分类群(种、变种),可归于6个亚属。其中,研究中已发表新分类群4个,待描述新分类群31个,中国新记录种22个。对原描述自东亚的18个种、2变型的模式标本或原始材料进行了重新追踪和(或)研究。对7种乳菇属真菌的盖表皮发育过程进行的观察发现,乳菇属真菌在子实体原基阶段盖表菌丝全部为栅栏型。随着子实体的生长,现发现盖表皮菌丝方式至少以以下2种方式适应菌盖的扩展:1. 直立的菌丝变为倒伏,菌丝不膨大,最终形成菌丝平伏型或粘菌丝平伏型;2. 菌丝形成多次分隔后膨大,最终形成各种球囊型表皮类型。地理分布分析表明,中国西南地区各气候带间乳菇属真菌的种类和构成表现出明显差异,占总数66.3%的63种仅分布于一个气候带。亚洲特有成分占77.9%。首次发现热带亚洲成分。古热带植物区有着最为丰富的热带亚洲成分,而横断山区亚高山带的种类具有较强的北极-第三纪区系性质。乳菇属中各区系成分在中国西南地区的分布支持了该区种子植物的区系分区。中国西南的乳菇属真菌总体上具有较强的北温带性质。
英文摘要: Lactarius is a big genus in Basidiomycotina with scientific, ecological, and economical significance. Monographic work on the genus in China, however, was wanting before this work. Intensive taxonomic work was carried out in southwestern China covering Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Xizang (Tibet) by giving full consideration on the genus’ own trait and employing modern taxonomic methods of agarics. As a result of studying over 2000 collections, 95 taxa (including species, varieties) were recognized, including 4 new species described during this work, 31 taxa to be described, and 22 new records to China, which can be assigned to six subgenera. Type specimens or original material of 18 species and 2 forms originally described from East Asia were retraced, reviewed and (or) re-examined. Study on ontogeny of the pileipellis of 7 species revealed that in the primordial stage, all hyphae in the pileipellis were vertical, forming a trichoderm pileipellis. Then in the following stages, at least two mechanisms were employed to adapt the expansion of the pileus 1. Hyphae becoming repent, resulting in a final pileipellis of cutis or ixocutis; 2. Hyphae at first septated, then inflated with the terminal unchanged or changed. Biogeographical analysis shows that species and their composition in each climate zone in southwestern China are essentially different. 63 taxa, taking up 66.3% are those restricted to one climatic zone. Floristic biogeographical analysis reveals that element endemic to Asia accounts for 77.9%. Tropic Asian element was found for the first time. Paleotropical region holds the most abundant tropical Asian element and the species in subalpine region in Hengduan Mts. have strong affinity of Arctic-Tertiary. The distribution pattern of the floristic elements of lactarii in southwestern China essentially supports the regionalization of the Chinese Flora of seed plants.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/152
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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