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题名: 永德大雪山种子植物区系研究
作者: 刘恩德
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2006-12-12
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 彭华
关键词: 物种丰富度 ; 永德大雪山 ; 植物地理学 ; 中山湿性常绿阔叶林 ; 种子植物区系
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 永德大雪山位于云南省临沧市永德县东北部,北纬24°00′--24°12′,东经99°32′--99°43′,属于我国西南横断山脉—怒山山脉的南延部分,主要由大雪山(海拔3504.2 m)、小雪山(海拔3363 m)、波罗山(海拔2991 m)、蛮乃雪山(海拔3364 m)、牛峰堆山(海拔2974)等山脉构成。永德大雪山地区东起蚂蝗箐、西迄永康河,北自亚练乡文化村、南至崇岗南汀河边,主要包括永德县东北部的大雪山、乌木龙、亚练、永康、班卡以及东南部的大山、崇岗一共七个乡镇,面积约1700 km2。 本文在前人工作的基础上,对永德大雪山地区的植被、种子植物区系以及物种的垂直分布格局进行了研究,并得出了若干结论。 永德大雪山的植被特征 永德大雪山的植被在水平分布上,地带性植被之间在东、西、南、北方向上呈现犬牙交错、镶嵌分布的过渡特点;在垂直方向上,由于不同海拔高度以及局部地形导致的气候差异,使得植被的垂直分带十分显著。由河谷地带向上到山顶,呈现出明显的垂直层次,包含了从热带性质到寒温带性质的植被系列。此外,永德大雪山植被还具有如下一些特点: 1. 常绿阔叶林发育最好,群系类型多种多样,如截头石栎Lithocarpus truncatus林、高山栲Castanopsis delavayi林、木果石栎Lithocarpus xylocarpus林、多变石栎Lithocarpus variolosus林等。 2. 铁杉针阔混交林成带分布,但不形成纯林。铁杉林在川西、滇西北、藏东南等山地广泛分布,本区与上述地区显著不同的是铁杉不形成纯林。 3. 亚高山灌丛、竹类灌丛发育繁盛,草甸植被发育欠佳。 4. 隐域性植被随地形、基质等不同呈非地带性分布。如在薄刀山山顶分布的刺柏Juniperus formosana单优群落就是一类与石灰石基质和微地形有关的隐域性植被。 永德大雪山种子植物区系特征 本文从科、属、种三个层面对永德大雪山种子植物区系进行了统计和分析,结论如下: 1. 永德大雪山种子植物种类十分丰富。迄今为止,本区已记载野生种子植物190科,859属,2025种(含53变种/亚种)。其中裸子植物6科,10属,15种;被子植物184科,849属,2010种(含53变种亚种)。通过与其邻近地区种子植物科、属、种数量的比较可知,永德大雪山具有较为丰富的植物物种多样性。 2. 永德大雪山种子植物190科中,热带性质的科有98科(不计世界广布科),占总科数的51.6%,温带性质的科(不计世界广布科)有45科,占总科数的23.7%;热带性质的科所占比例明显高于温带性质的科,这显示了本区植物区系与热带植物区系的历史联系。但另一方面,本区还缺乏典型热带植物区系的特征科或优势科,如龙脑香科Dipterocarpaceae、玉蕊科Lecythidaceae、隐翼科Crypteroniaceae、肉豆蔻科Myristicaceae等;859属中,计有热带性质的属493属(不计世界广布属),占全部属数的57.4%,计有温带性质的属(不计世界广布属)313属,占全部属数的36.4%;2025种(含53变种/亚种)中,计有热带性质的种837种(不计世界广布种),占全部种数的40.3%,计有温带性质的种(不计世界广布种)1233种,占全部种数的59.4%。综合科、属、种三级水平的统计分析,永德大雪山种子植物区系的热带性质和温带性质基本上等量齐观,表明永德大雪山种子植物区系处于热带亚洲植物区系向东亚植物区系过渡的环节上,是联系这两大区系成分的关键地区,区系的过渡性明显,具有鲜明的亚热带特色,但仍然比较偏重于热带性质。 3. 通过永德大雪山种子植物区系的综合分析以及与邻近地区区系相似性的比较得知,永德大雪山种子植物区系跟无量山区系的关系最近,跟无量山一样,尽管热带成分在其区系中占有较高的比例,但仍然缺乏热带植物区系的典型和特征成分,同时又拥有为数不少的东亚植物区系特征科属,因此永德大雪山植物区系在植物区系区划中的地位是:东亚植物区(Ⅲ East Asiatic Kingdom)-中国-喜马拉雅森林植物亚区(Ⅲ E. Sino-Himalayan forest subkingdom)-云南高原地区(Ⅲ E13. Yunnan plateau region)-滇西南中山山地亚地区(Ⅲ E13c SW. Yunnan mountain and hill subregion)。 4. 永德大雪山的现代种子植物区系主要是由热带亚洲成分、中国特有成分、东亚成分中的中国-喜马拉雅成分在漫长的地质历史过程中融合发展而来的。此外,由于本区处于东亚植物区的西南缘,位于古热带植物区向东亚植物区的过渡地带上,因此,区系的过渡性质非常明显,印度-马来亚成分、中国-喜马拉雅成分以及北温带成分在此都产生了一定数量的特有类群,同时,许多种系以此作为分布的北界或南界。凡此种种,共同形成了永德大雪山的现代种子植物区系面貌。 5. 永德大雪山种子植物区系具有较为明显的水平和垂直替代现象。一方面,群落中的建群种或优势种表现出相应的地理替代;另一方面,一些属的近缘种在本区也表现出垂直方向上的替代。 6. 永德大雪山种子植物区系的特有现象十分丰富。本区拥有7个比较古老的东亚特有科,这无疑表明其区系的发生、发展与东亚植物区系密切相关;18个中国特有属中既有比较原始或古老的类型,也有随着喜马拉雅山脉的抬升和青藏高原的隆起而发生和发展起来的年青成分,且新特有属的数量相对较多,显示了永德大雪山在保存古老成分的同时,又孕育了许多年青成分;众多的中国特有种表明了永德大雪山与中国各自然区域的地理联系;36个永德大雪山特有种也标志了该区域的性质和特征。 7. 通过对永德大雪山不同海拔段物种丰富度进行统计分析后得知,其物种丰富度在垂直方向上的分布格局是:在低海拔地段,物种丰富度总体上随着海拔升高而增加,在海拔2300--2600米地段达到最大值,然后随着海拔升高而降低。总的来说,永德大雪山物种丰富度与海拔的关系为偏峰曲线,即在中海拔地段物种丰富度最高。中海拔地段可能具备水热组合状况最好的生境以及物种分布存在一个边界,是形成如此分布格局的可能原因。此外,不同海拔段的面积大小(地形差异)、生境异质性以及干扰等等因素也可能影响物种丰富度的垂直分布格局。 8. 从永德大雪山中山湿性常绿阔叶林219种常见或优势种的区系性质来看,仅热带亚洲分布型及其变型、中国-喜马拉雅分布型和中国特有分布型能够贯穿乔木Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ层以及灌木层、草本层和层外植物各层中;从热带成分和温带成分所占比例看,永德大雪山中山湿性常绿阔叶林的温带性质较显著地强于热带性质;其来源主要是中国-喜马拉雅森林区系成分,同时与热带亚洲植物区系有着深刻的渊源。从永德大雪山与邻近地区同类型植被的种类组合的差异来看,永德大雪山中山湿性常绿阔叶林比邻近地区同类型植被具有更“温湿”的特点。
英文摘要: Yongde Snow Mountains, which located between 24°00′--24°12′ N and 99°32′--99°43′ E, are administratively belong to the Yongde County, Southwest Yunnan, China. They are located in the south of the continued parts of southwestern Hengduan Mountains (i.e. Nushan Mountain), and mainly made up of Mt. Daxue (alt. 3504.2 m), Mt. Xiaoxue (alt. 3363 m), Mt. Boluo (alt. 2991 m), Mt. Mannaixueshan (alt. 3364 m), Mt. Niufengdui (alt. 2974 m) etc. geographically. The study area, Yongde Snow Mountains region, which is composed of seven towns (including Daxueshan, Wumulong, Yalian n, Yongkang, Banka, Dashan and Chonggang), covers from Mahuangqing in the east to Yongkang River in the west and from Wenhua village in the north to Nanting River in the south,. The total area of the Yongde Snow Mountains region is about 1700 km2. Based on the previous research result on the Yongde Snow Mountains region, we have carried out further study on the vegetation and the floristic characters of the region, and also on the pattern of species richness along altitudinal gradients in the region. The result of this study is offered in the dissertation. The characteristics of vegetation in the Yongde Snow Mountains region The vegetation of the Yongde Snow Mountains region distributes in no definite rule latitudinally or longitudinally, and the base-belt vegetation is mixed with each other along different slopes of the mountains. Due to the climate difference caused by altitudinal gradients, the vertical vegetation belts can easily be distinguished from each other. From the valley of Nanting River and Yongkang River to the peak of Daxue Mountain, a sequence of vertical vegetation types display obviously, containing the vegetation series from tropical to temperate. Besides the distribution characteristics, the vegetation of the Yongde Snow Mountains region has also some other features as below: 1. The evergreen broad-leaved forests are the best vegetation in the region, which includes several Formations, such as Form. Lithocarpus truncatus, Form. Castanopsis delavayi, Form. Lithocarpus xylocarpus, Form. Lithocarpus variolosus, and so on. 2. Tsuga and broad-leaved trees mixed forests distribute in a zone in the area, but no pure Tsuga forest occurs here. Tsuga forests are widely distributed in western Sichuan, southeastern Xizang and northwestern Yunnan. The Yongde Snow Mountains region is different from those previously mentioned in that the Tsuga plants in the area don’t form pure forest. 3. Alpine shrub vegetation is fully developed but alpine meadows are somewhat not so developed. 4. Owing to the heterogeneity of landforms, soil substrates and other factors in different areas, there are some non-zonal vegetation types that are restricted to certain areas. The Juniperus formosana community which can only be found on the range of Bodao Mountain is such a type of non-zonal vegetation whose coming into being has something to do with the landforms and the limestone soil. The floristic characteristics of the Yongde Snow Mountains region Based on the floristic statistics and analysis at the level of family, genus, and species, 8 points about the floristic characteristics and the pattern of species richness along altitudinal gradients have been concluded: 1. The Yongde Snow Mountains region is rich in seed-plant species. So far, 190 families, 859 genera, 2025 species (including 53 varieties/subspecies) from the region have been recorded. Among these taxa, 6 families, 10 genera, 15 species are gymnosperms; the other 184 families, 849 genera, 2010 species (including 53 varieties/subspecies) are angiosperms. Through comparing with the adjacent regions in numbers at the level of family, genus and species, it is obvious that the Yongde Snow Mountains region is abundant in plant diversity. 2. Among the190 families in this area, 98 families (excluding the cosmopolitan ones) are tropical, and 45 families are temperate. The percentage in total of tropical families is higher than that of temperate families, which proves that the flora of this region has a close relationship with tropical flora historically and geographically. However, some typical and tropic-endemic families, such as Crypteroniaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Lecythidaceae, Myristicaceae, etc., don’t occur in this area. Of the 859 genera, 493 (excluding the cosmopolitan genera) are tropical, and 313 are temperate. Among the 2025 species (including 53 varieties/subspecies), the number of tropical ones accounts 837 (excluding the cosmopolitan species), and 1233 species is temperate. Considering the flora characteristics of the area at the level of family, genus and species, it is obvious that the amount of tropical and temperate elements in this region are almost equal, which implies that the Yongde Snow Mountains region is located in an area with a flora transitioned from tropical Asian to East Asian. In another word, the region is a key one that connects the two floras, and its flora has prominent subtropical feature but is essentially more tropical. 3. After the general analyzing of the flora in the Yongde Snow Mountains region and the floristic comparison with the four adjacent regions, it can be concluded that the flora of Yongde Snow Mountains is the closest to that of Mt. Wuliang. Similar to that of Mt. Wuliang, with many East Asian families and genera, the flora of Yongde Snow Mountains still lacks of typical and tropic-endemic families though having a higher percentage of the tropical elements in the region. Therefore, the floristic position of Yongde Snow Mountains is: East Asiatic Kingdom (Ⅲ)---Sino-Himalayan forest subkingdom (ⅢE.)---Yunnan plateau region (ⅢE13)---SW. Yunnan mountain and hill subregion (ⅢE13c). 4. The modern seed-plant flora of Yongde Snow Mountains mainly comes from tropical Asian, China-endemic, and Sino-Himalayan elements, and during the long geological history, the process of fusion of these three elements is a key to the origin of modern flora in the Yongde Snow Mountains area. In addition, because the region is located at the border of East Asiatic Kingdom and in the transitional area between Paleotropical Kingdom and East Asiatic Kingdom, some elements from Indo-Malaysia, Sino-Himalaya and North Temperate developed into variously endemic taxa in the region. Moreover, the region became the northern or southern distribution border of many taxa. All these factors formed the framework of the modern flora in Yongde Snow Mountains region during geological periods. 5. The phenomenon of horizontal and vertical replacement in the region is obvious. On the one hand, some constructive species and dominant species of the communities show a geographical replacement, on the other hand, some close species belonging to the same genus also show a vertical replacement along altitude. 6. The endemism of the flora in the Yongde Snow Mountains region is rather remarkable. In the region, there are 7 families that are endemic to Eastern Asia, which suggests that its flora has a close relationship with that of East Asia during its flora originating and developing. Among the 18 China-endemic genera, some are primitive and old elements, and much more others are new and young elements which probably came into being with the rising of Mt. Himalaya and the upheaving of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. All these indicate that the Yongde Snow Mountains region not only has preserved some primitive and old floristic elements, but also developed many young and advanced ones. A large number of China-endemic species show this region’s contact with other natural and geographical regions of China, and the 36 species endemic to Yongde Snow Mountains can make its floristic characteristics more clear and notable. 7. After a statistic analysis on the species richness of each altitudinal gradient (with an altitude range of 100 m) in the Yongde Snow Mountains region, it can be concluded that the species richness pattern along altitudinal gradients is: in the low altitude area, the species richness rises with the increasing of altitude in general and reaches the maximum at the altitude of 2300--2600 m, then it drops with altitude rising. In conclusion, in the Yongde Snow Mountains region the relationship between the species richness and altitude gradient is a unimodal curve, which means that the maximum species richness appears in the middle altitude region. We ascribe the distribution pattern to the probable best combination of water and heat at the middle altitude and the existence of the “hard boundary” of species’ distribution. Furthermore, the other factors such as the areage, heterogeneity of habitats and interference may also affect the distribution pattern of species along altitudinal gradients. 8. Based on the analysis of the disposition in vertical structure of 219 dominant and frequent species in the mid-montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest, it can be shown that only Tropical Asian, Sino-Himalayan and China-endemic elements can occur in all the synusiae including the A、B、C tree layers, shrub layer, herb layer and so on. Among 219 dominant and frequent species, the Sino-Himalayan and China-endemic elements take up a large portion, and the Tropical Asian elements play an important role as well, which indicates that the mid-montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yongde Snow Mountains is floristically intervenient between subtropical and temperate. On the other hand, the further analysis of China-endemic species shows that the region is floristically transitional. All these evidences indicate that Yongde Snow Mountains are on the border between Sino-Himalayan flora and Tropical Asian flora, and its transitional floristic characteristics are rather obvious. Through the comparison of dominant and main companion species between Yongde Snow Mountains region and its neighbouring regions, it shows that the mid-montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest in the region is more “humid and warm”.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/144
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永德大雪山种子植物区系研究.刘恩德[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2006.20-25
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