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题名: 五种葫芦科植物化学成分和生物活性研究
作者: 陈剑超
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2007-01-19
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 昆明植物研究所
导师: 邱明华
关键词: 葫芦科 ; 雪胆属植物 ; 苦瓜 ; 纽子瓜 ; 葫芦素 ; 葫芦素皂苷 ; 生源途径
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 葫芦科植物由于具有较大的经济用途而为大家所熟悉。在药用价值方面,雪胆属植物之块根性寒、味苦,有清热、消炎和解毒的功效,被广泛用于治疗肠炎、菌痢、冠心病、气管炎等多种疾病。雪胆属植物大多富含雪胆甲素。雪胆甲素是雪胆属植物的主要活性成分,具有清热解毒、抗菌消炎、消肿止痛的功能,临床上适用于菌痢、肠炎、支气管炎、急性扁桃体炎等症的治疗;钮子瓜的叶和根入药用于清热、解毒、消肿散结,治疗咽喉肿痛、结膜炎,外用治疮疡肿毒、淋巴结结核、睾丸炎、皮肤湿诊等;苦瓜之根茎用于痢疾、便血、疔疮肿毒、风火牙痛;叶:用于胃痛、痢疾肿毒、鹅掌风;果实有热病烦渴、中暑、痢疾、赤眼疼痛、痈肿丹毒、恶疮之功效。 学位论文论述了对金佛山雪胆(Hemsleya jinfushanensis)、短柄雪胆(Hemsleya delavayi)、十一叶雪胆(Hemsleya endecaphylla)、纽子瓜(Zehneria maysorensis)、苦瓜(Momordica charantia)等五种植物的化学成分和生物活性研究。通过利用植物化学方面的基本手段,从上述五种植物中共分离鉴定了102个化合物(不重复的化合物93个),35个为新葫芦素类化合物。化合物类型涉及单萜、倍半萜、三萜、黄酮、甾体、酚性小分子及神经酰胺等长链化合物。首次发现了三降葫芦素类型化合物;首次发现含氮葫芦素。尝试了部分葫芦素类化合物在抗血小板聚集及抗-HIV等方面的生物活性,发现个别葫芦素有明显的抗-HIV活性。研究结果为葫芦素类化合物的生物活性注入新的内容。 论文的综述则阐述1980年至2004年间发表的葫芦素类化合物,将葫芦素及其皂苷按结构特点分为十二类,列出了不同类型中具有比较特征结构的化合物229个。同时还讨论描述了相关化合物的生物活性。
英文摘要: The cucurbitaceous plants are noted for their economic values. The tubers of Hemsleya species have been used as antibacterial remedy to treat sore throat, toothache, dysentery, bronchitis, and chronic cervicitis. The whole plants of Zehneria maysorensis have been used for treatment of cystitis and headache. The fruits, vines, leaves and roots of Momordica charantia have been used in China for treating a number of diseases, such as toothache, diarrhea, furuncle, and diabetes mellitus. From the plants of Hemsleya jinfushanensis, Hemsleya delavayi, Hemsleya endecaphylla, Zehneria maysorensis, and Momordica charantia, 102 compounds, 93 of which were different with each other, were isolated and identified based on basic phytochemical techniques. All these compounds were composed of monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, triterpenoids, steroids, aromatic, and ceramides. Among them, 35 cucurbitane compounds were proved to be new ones, including three novel trinorcucurbitacins and one containing N cucurbitacin. Some cucurbitacins exhibited obvious anti-HIV activities. This is the first report of anti-HIV activity of cucurbitane compounds. In the review chapter, according to the characteristics of the structures, cucurbitacins are divided into twelve categories. Their biological effects of the cucurbitacins and their glycosides are also included. This review covers 153 literatures published from 1980 to 2004, and 229 structures are presented.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/136
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
五种葫芦科植物化学成分和生物活性研究.陈剑超[d].中国科学院昆明植物研究所,2007.20-25
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