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题名: 茶花杂交育种中的细胞遗传学初步研究
作者: 肖调江
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 1991
授予单位: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院昆明植物研究所
导师: 夏丽芳
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 本文从细胞、杂交新和性及花粉萌发生理和花粉贮藏方法等三个方面研究了与茶花杂交育种密切相关的一些问题。1、细胞学文中报道了14个种和2个F、代杂种的核型。这些种的染色体基数稳定,为X=15;体细胞染色体数有2n=30、45、60、75、90、105、120等一系列变化;一些 的种内有二个或二个以上的倍体出现。核型一般由m、sm、st三类染色体组成;染色体从最长到最短逐渐变小;染色体之间的长度差异不大,同源染色体配对较困难。间期核属球状前染色体型。分前期染色体属中间型。核型不对称性多为2A或2B型。尽管不同的种类有时具相似的类型,但只要仔细加以分析,仍可找到它们之间的差异。本文观察了9个种的花粉母细胞在减数分裂过程中的染色体配对行为和交叉频率。2、花粉的萌发生理和贮藏方法所研究的3个种的花粉平均败育率依次为攸县油茶>凹脉金花茶>金花茶。每个种在不同开花时期的平均败育率依次为开花初期>开花末期>盛花期。3、杂交亲和性本文对6个种间的杂交新和性进行了初步研究。结果表明二倍体与六倍体之间,六倍体与六倍体之间的杂交结实率明显高于二倍体与六倍体之间,六位体与六倍体之间的杂交结实率明显高于二倍体与二倍 体之间的杂交结实率。最后,作者根据本文和前人的研究,认为(1)将云南野山茶从西南红山茶中分出并入云南山茶较为合理;(2)要想通过人工杂交方法培育出开黄色花的茶花品种,亲本之一应为黄色金花茶,另一亲本则应为开淡色花或开白色花的种或品种。
英文摘要: In this paper were studied the cytology, pollen germination physiology and its storing method, as well as the cross-compatibility in some Camellia plants. All the studies are very important and have close relationship with the cross breeding of Camellias. 1. cytology 14 species and 2 F1 hybrids studied here showed commonly in somatic cells the round prochromosome type of the interphase nuclei and the interstitial type of the prophase chromosomes. Arranging the chromosomes by size is very difficult, since the chromosomes grade imperceptibly from the largest to the smallest. Homologous chromosome pairs do not appear identical. Although some species showed similar karyotypes, the difference between them could be found by careful analyses. Among the 9 species in which meiosis was studied, C.chrysantha, C.impressinervis, C.pitardii var.pitardii, C.albovilosa, and two populations of C.saluenensis from Jindian of Kunming and Hekou of Baoshan formed 15 bivalents at midphase I, and the average chiasema per bivalent was 2.0;C.pitardii var.yunnanica, C.yuhsienensis and five red-flowered populations of C.reticulata formed 45 bivalents at midphase I, and the average chiasema was also 2.0. 2. pollen germination physiology and its storing method Among the three species studied here, the average percentage of aborted pollen was as follows in proper order: C.yuhsienensis>C.impressinervis>C.chrysantha 3. Cross-compatibility Cross-compatibilities were studied in six species. The result showed that interspecific crosses between hexaploid species or between the diploid species and polyploid species could be more successfully achieved than those between diploid species. Finally, according to the studies presented in this paper and reported previously by other authors, it was considered that: (1) it seemed to be more reasonable to combine C.pitardii var.yunnanica sealy into C.reticulata Lindl as its wildform (2) in order to develop Camellias cultivars with yellow-colored flower through the method of cross-breeding, the yellow- colored species should be used as a parent of cross-breeding, and those species or cultivars with light-colored or white-colored flower as the corresponding parent.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/936
Appears in Collections:昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文_学位论文

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