The pollination of Habenaria rhodocheila (Orchidaceae) in South China: When butterflies take sides
Chen,Xing-Hui; Tan,Shao-Lin; Liang,Yue-Long; Huang,Lang; Xiao,Han-Wen; Luo,Huo-Lin; Xiong,Dong-Jin; Yang,Bo-Yun; Ren,Zong-Xin
AbstractHabenaria is one of the largest terrestrial genera in the family Orchidaceae. Most field studies on Habenaria species with greenish-white and nocturnal scented flowers are pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths and settling moths. However, H. rhodocheila presents reddish flowers lacking a detectable scent and fails to fit the moth pollination syndrome. We investigated the pollinators, breeding system, and functional traits of H. rhodocheila in South China and found that two diurnal swallowtail butterflies Papilio helenus and Papilio nephelus (Papilionidae) were the effective pollinators. When butterflies foraged for nectar in the spur, the pollinia became attached between the palpi. A triangular projected median rostellar lobe was found at the entrance (sinus) of the spur of H. rhodocheila. This lobe divided the spur opening into two entrances forcing butterflies to enter their proboscides through the left or right side. When the projection of median rostellar lobe was removed, the site of pollinium attachment changed to the eyes of the butterflies, leading to a higher rate of pollinium removal but lower rate of pollinium deposition. Our quartz glass cylinder choice experiment suggested that visual rather than olfactory cues provided the major stimuli for butterflies to locate these flowers. Hand pollination experiments suggested this species was self-compatible but pollinator-dependent. However, the proportion of seeds with large embryos produced in self-pollinated fruits was significantly lower than in cross-pollinated fruits, indicating a significant inbreeding depression. Unlike many other orchid species, fruit set was higher than rates of pollinium removal, indicating a high level of pollination efficiency in a species with friable pollinia. Shifts from moth to butterfly pollination in the genus Habenaria parallel other orchid lineages providing insights into the potential for pollinator-mediated floral trait selection.
Keywordbreeding system butterflies Habenaria pollination efficiency reproductive success
WOS IDWOS:000624055500001
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Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.[Chen, Xing-Hui
2.Tan, Shao-Lin
3.Huang, Lang
4.Xiao, Han-Wen
5.Luo, Huo-Lin
6.Xiong, Dong-Jin
7.Nanchang Univ, Sch Life Sci, Jiangxi Key Lab Plant Resources, Nanchang 330031, Jiangxi, Peoples R China
8.Jiulianshan Natl Nat Reserve Adm Bur, Ganzhou, Peoples R China
9.Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Bot, CAS Key Lab Plant Divers & Biogeog East Asia, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, Peoples R China
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Chen,Xing-Hui,Tan,Shao-Lin,Liang,Yue-Long,et al. The pollination of Habenaria rhodocheila (Orchidaceae) in South China: When butterflies take sides[J]. ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION,2021,11(6):2849-2861.
APA Chen,Xing-Hui.,Tan,Shao-Lin.,Liang,Yue-Long.,Huang,Lang.,Xiao,Han-Wen.,...&Ren,Zong-Xin.(2021).The pollination of Habenaria rhodocheila (Orchidaceae) in South China: When butterflies take sides.ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION,11(6),2849-2861.
MLA Chen,Xing-Hui,et al."The pollination of Habenaria rhodocheila (Orchidaceae) in South China: When butterflies take sides".ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION 11.6(2021):2849-2861.
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