Genome of lethal Lepiota venenata and insights into the evolution of toxin-biosynthetic genes
Luli, Yunjiao1,5; Cai, Qing1; Chen, Zuo H.2; Sun, Hu1; Zhu, Xue-Tai3; Li, Xuan4; Yang, Zhu L.1; Luo, Hong1
Source PublicationBMC GENOMICS
AbstractBackgroundGenomes of lethal Amanita and Galerina mushrooms have gradually become available in the past ten years; in contrast the other known amanitin-producing genus, Lepiota, is still vacant in this aspect. A fatal mushroom poisoning case in China has led to acquisition of fresh L. venenata fruiting bodies, based on which a draft genome was obtained through PacBio and Illumina sequencing platforms. Toxin-biosynthetic MSDIN family and Porlyl oligopeptidase B (POPB) genes were mined from the genome and used for phylogenetic and statistical studies to gain insights into the evolution of the biosynthetic pathway.ResultsThe analysis of the genome data illustrated that only one MSDIN, named LvAMA1, exits in the genome, along with a POPB gene. No POPA homolog was identified by direct homology searching, however, one additional POP gene, named LvPOPC, was cloned and the gene structure determined. Similar to ApAMA1 in A. phalloides and GmAMA1 in G. marginata, LvAMA1 directly encodes -amanitin. The two toxin genes were mapped to the draft genome, and the structures analyzed. Furthermore, phylogenetic and statistical analyses were conducted to study the evolution history of the POPB genes. Compared to our previous report, the phylogenetic trees unambiguously showed that a monophyletic POPB lineage clearly conflicted with the species phylogeny. In contrast, phylogeny of POPA genes resembled the species phylogeny. Topology and divergence tests showed that the POPB lineage was robust and these genes exhibited significantly shorter genetic distances than those of the house-keeping rbp2, a characteristic feature of genes with horizontal gene transfer (HGT) background. Consistently, same scenario applied to the only MSDIN, LvAMA1, in the genome.ConclusionsTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported genome of Lepiota. The analyses of the toxin genes indicate that the cyclic peptides are synthesized through a ribosomal mechanism. The toxin genes, LvAMA1 and LvPOPB, are not in the vicinity of each other. Phylogenetic and evolutionary studies suggest that HGT is the underlining cause for the occurrence of POPB and MSDIN in Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota, which are allocated in three distantly-related families.
KeywordGenome Lepiota Amanitin Phylogeny Horizontal gene transfer
Indexed BySCI
WOS IDWOS:000460755900001
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Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorLuli, Yunjiao
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Bot, CAS Key Lab Plant Divers & Biogeog East Asia, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, Peoples R China
2.Hunan Normal Univ, Coll Life Sci, Changsha 410081, Hunan, Peoples R China
3.Northwest Normal Univ, Coll Life Sci, Lanzhou 730030, Gansu, Peoples R China
4.Kunming Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Environm Sci & Engn, Kunming 650091, Yunnan, Peoples R China
5.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
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Luli, Yunjiao,Cai, Qing,Chen, Zuo H.,et al. Genome of lethal Lepiota venenata and insights into the evolution of toxin-biosynthetic genes[J]. BMC GENOMICS,2019,20:14.
APA Luli, Yunjiao.,Cai, Qing.,Chen, Zuo H..,Sun, Hu.,Zhu, Xue-Tai.,...&Luo, Hong.(2019).Genome of lethal Lepiota venenata and insights into the evolution of toxin-biosynthetic genes.BMC GENOMICS,20,14.
MLA Luli, Yunjiao,et al."Genome of lethal Lepiota venenata and insights into the evolution of toxin-biosynthetic genes".BMC GENOMICS 20(2019):14.
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