Pollen and stamen mimicry: the alpine flora as a case study
Lunau, Klaus1; Konzmann, Sabine1; Winter, Lena1; Kamphausen, Vanessa1; Ren, Zong-Xin2
AbstractMany melittophilous flowers display yellow and UV-absorbing floral guides that resemble the most common colour of pollen and anthers. The yellow coloured anthers and pollen and the similarly coloured flower guides are described as key features of a pollen and stamen mimicry system. In this study, we investigated the entire angiosperm flora of the Alps with regard to visually displayed pollen and floral guides. All species were checked for the presence of pollen- and stamen-imitating structures using colour photographs. Most flowering plants of the Alps display yellow pollen and at least 28% of the species display pollen- or stamen-imitating structures. The most frequent types of pollen and stamen imitations were (mostly yellow and UV-absorbing) colour patches on petals (65% of species displaying imitations), patterns of inflorescences (18%), stamen-like pistils (10%), and staminodes (6%), as well as three-dimensional structures such as convex lower lips and filamental hairs (< 5%). Dichogamous and diclinous species display pollen- and stamen-imitating structures more often than non-dichogamous and non-diclinous species, respectively. The visual similarity between the androecium and other floral organs is attributed to mimicry, i.e. deception caused by the flower visitor's inability to discriminate between model and mimic, sensory exploitation, and signal standardisation among floral morphs, flowering phases, and co-flowering species. We critically discuss deviant pollen and stamen mimicry concepts and evaluate the frequent evolution of pollen-imitating structures in view of the conflicting use of pollen for pollination in flowering plants and provision of pollen for offspring in bees.
KeywordMimicry Pollen Anther Stamen Sensory Exploitation Pollination
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WOS IDWOS:000401742400019
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Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.Heinrich Heine Univ Dusseldorf, Inst Sensory Ecol, Dept Biol, Univ Str 1, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
2.Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Bot, Key Lab Plant Divers & Biogeog East Asia, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, Peoples R China
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GB/T 7714
Lunau, Klaus,Konzmann, Sabine,Winter, Lena,et al. Pollen and stamen mimicry: the alpine flora as a case study[J]. ARTHROPOD-PLANT INTERACTIONS,2017,11(3):427-447.
APA Lunau, Klaus,Konzmann, Sabine,Winter, Lena,Kamphausen, Vanessa,&Ren, Zong-Xin.(2017).Pollen and stamen mimicry: the alpine flora as a case study.ARTHROPOD-PLANT INTERACTIONS,11(3),427-447.
MLA Lunau, Klaus,et al."Pollen and stamen mimicry: the alpine flora as a case study".ARTHROPOD-PLANT INTERACTIONS 11.3(2017):427-447.
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