Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia
Harrison, Rhett D.1,2; Sreekar, Rachakonda3,4; Brodie, Jedediah F.5,6; Brook, Sarah7; Luskin, Matthew8; O'Kelly, Hannah7; Rao, Madhu9,10; Scheffers, Brett11; Velho, Nandini12,13
AbstractAlthough deforestation and forest degradation have long been considered the most significant threats to tropical biodiversity, across Southeast Asia (Northeast India, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines) substantial areas of natural habitat have few wild animals (>1 kg), bar a few hunting-tolerant species. To document hunting impacts on vertebrate populations regionally, we conducted an extensive literature review, including papers in local journals and reports of governmental and nongovernmental agencies. Evidence from multiple sites indicated animal populations declined precipitously across the region since approximately 1980, and many species are now extirpated from substantial portions of their former ranges. Hunting is by far the greatest immediate threat to the survival of most of the region's endangered vertebrates. Causes of recent overhunting include improved access to forests and markets, improved hunting technology, and escalating demand for wild meat, wildlife-derived medicinal products, and wild animals as pets. Although hunters often take common species, such as pigs or rats, for their own consumption, they take rarer species opportunistically and sell surplus meat and commercially valuable products. There is also widespread targeted hunting of high-value species. Consequently, as currently practiced, hunting cannot be considered sustainable anywhere in the region, and in most places enforcement of protected-area and protected-species legislation is weak. The international community's focus on cross-border trade fails to address overexploitation of wildlife because hunting and the sale of wild meat is largely a local issue and most of the harvest is consumed in villages, rural towns, and nearby cities. In addition to improved enforcement, efforts to engage hunters and manage wildlife populations through sustainable hunting practices are urgently needed. Unless there is a step change in efforts to reduce wildlife exploitation to sustainable levels, the region will likely lose most of its iconic species, and many others besides, within the next few years.
KeywordBushmeat Defaunation Enforcement Extinction Extirpation Overexploitation Tropical Forest Wild Meat Wildlife Trade Aplicacion Bosque Tropical Carne De Animales Silvestres Carne Silvestre Defaunacion Extincion Extirpacion Mercado De Vida Silvestre Sobreexplotacion
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Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Bot, Key Lab Plant Divers & Biogeog East Asia, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, Peoples R China
2.World Agroforestry Ctr, East & Southern Africa Reg, 13 Elm Rd, Lusaka, Zambia
3.Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Mengla 666303, Yunnan, Peoples R China
4.Univ Adelaide, Sch Biol Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
5.Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
6.Univ British Columbia, Dept Bot, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
7.Wildlife Conservat Soc, Cambodia Program, POB 1620,House 21,St 21, Phenom Penh, Cambodia
8.Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Environm Sci & Policy, 130 Mulford Hall,3114, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA
9.Wildlife Conservat Soc, SE Asia Program, 14 Sci Dr 4, Singapore 11743, Singapore
10.Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Biol Sci, 14 Sci Dr 4, Singapore 11743, Singapore
11.Univ Florida, Dept Wildlife Ecol & Conservat, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA
12.James Cook Univ, Ctr Trop Environm & Sustainabil Sci, Cairns, Qld 4878, Australia
13.James Cook Univ, Coll Marine & Environm Sci, Cairns, Qld 4878, Australia
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Harrison, Rhett D.,Sreekar, Rachakonda,Brodie, Jedediah F.,et al. Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia[J]. CONSERVATION BIOLOGY,2016,30(5):972-981.
APA Harrison, Rhett D..,Sreekar, Rachakonda.,Brodie, Jedediah F..,Brook, Sarah.,Luskin, Matthew.,...&Velho, Nandini.(2016).Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia.CONSERVATION BIOLOGY,30(5),972-981.
MLA Harrison, Rhett D.,et al."Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia".CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 30.5(2016):972-981.
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