马先蒿属斗叶组的分子系统学——兼大王马先蒿复合群的分类学修订
黄盼辉
学位类型硕士
导师王红
2010-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位专业植物学
摘要斗叶组(Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora)是马先蒿属在横断山区分布的一个特殊类群, 其内部各类群之间的分类和系统关系存在很大争议。该研究选取了78个个体,利用四个叶绿体片段以及一个核基因ITS,重建了斗叶组的系统发育,并对该组内分布最广、形态变异最大的大王马先蒿复合群(P. rex complex)进行了形态学研究。并开发了大王马先蒿13对具有多态性的SSR 引物。主要研究结果如下:1.利用四个叶绿体片段和一个核基因,重建了斗叶组的系统发育。证明斗叶组是一个单系类群,支持了前人的研究结果。基于ITS建立的系统树支持拟斗叶马先蒿(P. cyathophylloides)为单系,而有喙类的华丽马先蒿(P. superba)和斗叶马先蒿(P. cyathophylla)聚成一支。在叶绿体基因建立的系统树上,华丽马先蒿是一个单系群;分布在四川的拟斗叶马先蒿与同域分布的斗叶马先蒿成一支,二者可能存在基因渐渗。对乡城马先蒿(P. xiangchengensis)进行了归并。大王马先蒿和灌丛马先蒿(P. thamnophila)的关系复杂,二者可能有很高的基因交流。斗叶组是喜马拉雅-横断山区分布的快速辐射分化类群,可能存在杂交、谱系筛选和基因渐渗。2.用数量分类学的方法对大王马先蒿复合群进行了形态学研究,研究表明:大王马先蒿洛氏变种(P. rex var. rockii)与大王马先蒿原亚种在主要形态上差异较大,且地理隔离,建议变为亚种。而其下矮小亚种(P. rex subsp. parva)、察隅亚种(P. rex subsp. zayuensis)和假斗亚种(P. rex subsp. pseudocyathus)与原亚种的外部形态特征基本无异,均应归并。大王马先蒿立氏亚种(P. rex subsp. lipskyana)分类地位维持不变。大王马先蒿与灌丛马先蒿(P. thamnophila)迥然有异,应该分立。灌丛马先蒿杯状亚种(P. thamnophila subsp. cupuliformis)与其原亚种的分类地位也维持不变。3.用磁珠富集的方法,开发了13对有多态性且扩增条带清晰的SSR引物,为研究相关类群的遗传多样性和谱系地理学奠定了基础。
资助项目Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora is a distinctive group endemic to the eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region. It was regarded as a ‘grex’ or section and included all four general corolla types of Pedicularis. A unique feature is that the leaf and bract bases are fused together to form a cup-like structure around the stem at each node. Our molecular phylogenetic study indicated that P. sect. Cyathophora was a monophyletic lineage, although the relationships among species were not fully resolved. P. rex C. B. Clarke ex Maxim. is the most various and wide-distributed species in P. sect. Cyathophora. It is extremely variable in wild populations, and elicits a vast quantity of morpho-variations, which qualifies the species as one of the most diverse and complex taxa of the genus Pedicularis. In this study, the phylogeny of P. sect. Cyathophora was reconstructed based on four chloroplast genes (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, and trnL-F) and one nuclear gene, ITS, using 78 samples, with an emphasis on the P. rex complex. Also morphometric analyses were used to assess the morphological variation in P. rex complex and taxonomic revisions were presented for some taxa of this complex. Thirteen microsatellite markers were developed from three microsatellite-enriched libraries (AG, AC and AAG) of P. rex with a modified biotin-streptavidin capture technique, which could be used for further studies on the genetic diversity and population structure of this species and its congeners. Main results were summarized as follows: 1. Molecular phylogeny of P. sect. Cyathophora H. L. Li, The phylogeny of P. sect. Cyathophora was reconstructed based on chloroplast matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, trnL-F and one nuclear gene, ITS, involving six species and 11 outgroups with a total of 78 samples. Our study showed that the monophyly of this group was strongly supported, in which P. superba was monophyletic based on chloroplast genes. The samples of P. cyathophylloides from Sichuan nested within P. cyathophylla. Ancient hybridization may occur between the two species. P. xiangchengensis is better to treat as a synonym of P. cyathophylla. Especially, P. ser. Reges was complicated, in which the individuals from different populations in the same species were rarely monophyletic. In addition, individuals forming monophyletic groups were not geographically close. In P. ser. Reges, lineage sorting of chloroplast DNA variations following rapid divergence is likely to have caused complex phylogeny of the taxa, which was reconstructed in our study. Hybridzation, introgression, lineage sorting and adaptive radiation may play important roles in the evolution of these taxa studied. Multiple, independent data sets are needed for resolving phylogenetic relationships of rapidly diverged lineages in P. sect. Cyathophora. 2. The taxonomic revision of P. rex complex,A total of 165 specimens with about 14 vegetative and eight reproductive characters were involved in the morphometric analysis. The results of PCA did not support six taxa for it emerged considerable morphological overlap. P. rex var. rockii was promoted to subspecies level for its prominent performance in PCA. Three taxa, P. rex subsp. pseudocyathus, P. rex subsp. zayuensis and P. rex subsp. parva, were merged into P. rex subsp. rex. Then P. rex subsp. lipskyana kept still at its rank for its purple red corolla color. The result of DA led to the selection of diagnostic traits between the P. rex and P. thamnophila. P. rex has less dissected leaves than P. thamnophila. P. rex is various in leaves number in whole, but P. thamnophila has stable three leaves in whole. Itpossesses a smaller corolla than P. rex. But P. thamnophila subsp. cupuliformis is a little different from P. thamnophila subsp. thamnophila in some vegetative characters, and it has purple stripes with the lower lip, so it is kept at the subspecies level. 3. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from P. rex, We developed 13 microsatellite markers from three microsatellite-enriched libraries (AG, AC and AAG) of P. rex with a modified biotin-streptavidin capture technique. Polymorphism of each locus was assessed in 22 individuals with representation of five populations of P. rex. Additionally, among the 13 identified microsatellite markers, eleven of them were successfully amplified in species P. thamnophila, and five of them showed polymorphisms. This study may provide important information for further investigation on the population genetics, introduction and acclimatization of P. rex and its congeners.
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/16178
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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黄盼辉. 马先蒿属斗叶组的分子系统学——兼大王马先蒿复合群的分类学修订[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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