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题名: 乌头多倍体复合群的分子谱系地理学--兼论川乌的起源 
作者: 何俊
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2010-11
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王红
学位专业: 植物学
中文摘要: 乌头(A. carmichaeli Debx.)是一种具有悠久栽培历史的常用中药,形态和染色体倍性相当复杂,目前对其起源等重要问题所知甚少。本文利用分子系统学和分子谱系地理学等方法探讨乌头正品药材川乌(Radix Aconiti)的基原植物,建立鉴别正品川乌药材的DNA Barcoding技术,重新界定乌头多倍体复合群,澄清该复合群内的种间关系,推测该复合群的物种形成和演化过程、川乌的起源方式及影响其药材“道地性”形成的可能遗传分化模式。本研究极具挑战性,具有重要的理论和实际意义。本文针对上述问题进行了认真研究,得出了一些具有创新性的重要结果:1. 推测乌头原变种(A. carmichaeli var. carmichaeli)和毛叶乌头(A. carmichaeli var. pubescens)可能是川乌的基原植物,而乌头原变种可能是川乌的主要种源。2.北乌头(A. kusnezoffii Reichb.)与乌头在叶绿体psbA-trnH片段中存在长约56bp的序列,能很好地将两者与其他乌头属植物区分开。3.乌头多倍体复合群不仅包含乌头及其变种、北乌头及其变种、鸭绿乌头(A. jaluense Kom.),还应增加疏毛圆锥乌头(A. paniculigerum var. wulingense (Nakai) W. T. Wang);八倍体的乌头原变种很可能是由均为四倍体的黄山乌头(A. carmichaeli var. hwangshanicum W. T. Wang et Hsiao)和深裂乌头(A. carmichaeli var. tripartitum W. T. Wang)杂交形成;毛叶乌头可能是北乌头及其变种与黄山乌头的杂交种,而黄山乌头、深裂乌头和疏毛圆锥乌头可能都参与了展毛乌头(A. carmichaeli var. truppelianum (Ulbr.) W. T. Wang et Hsiao)的物种形成。4.两个叶绿体片段ndhA和psbA-trnH进行联合分析表明,乌头多倍体复合群具有较高遗传多样性水平。大别山、黄山和长白山余脉等地可能是该复合群冰期的避难所。避难所的居群在间冰期可能向南和向北进行了扩张,太行山和大别山可能是各自扩张的通道,秦岭、南岭对乌头原变种居群单倍型格局的形成具有重要影响。5.川乌的遗传多样性和居群遗传分化都较低。川乌至少是在两个地方驯化、至少存在两次起源。基原类群分布区的快速扩张可能是川乌药材道地性形成的主要遗传分化模式。
英文摘要: aconitum carmichaeli debx., a traditional chinese medicinal herb, which has been cultivated for more than one thousand years, and has different morphological and cytological characters. until now, the questions about its original and so on are still unknown. in this study, molecular phylogeny and phylogeography have been adopted to tracing the original plant(s) of chuanwu, distinguished it from a. kusnezoffii and other medicinal aconitum plants. with the help of nrdna and cpdna sequencing, the members of the a. carmichaeli polyploid complex were reclassified, and the relationships between the different clusters were also studied. finally, based on these data, phylogeographic studies were carried out for the complex and chuanwu, the origin of thechuanwu and the formation of the authentic characters were proposed. main conclusions are summarized as follows: 1. aconitum carmichaeli var. carmichaeli and a. carmichaeli var. pubescens were most likely the botanical original plants of chuanwu, and the former was the principal source. 2. a 56 bp sequence in the psba-trnh intergenic spacer could distinguish the a. carmichaeli and a. kusnezoffii from the other aconitum medicinal species. 3. aconitum carmichaeli polyploid complex includes the following taxa: a. carmichaeli, a. kusnezoffii, a. jaluense and a. paniculigerum var. wulingense. a. carmichaeli var. carmichaeli probablycame from the hybridization between a. carmichaeli var. hwangshanicum and a. carmichaeli var. tripartitum, and a. carmichaeli var. pubescens is likely ahybridized product of northeastern region taxa (a. kusnezoffii, a. paniculigerum var. wulingense) and central region taxon (a. carmichaeli var. hwangshanicum), while a. carmichaeli var. hwangshanicum, a. carmichaeli var. tripartitum and a. paniculigerum var. wulingense might all contribute to the speciation of a. carmichaeli var. truppelianum. 4. based on ndha and psba-trnh intergenic spacer sequence data in 45 populations of 525 individuals of a. carmichaeli polyploid complex 32 haplotypes were revealed. high genetic diversity at the complex level and relatively low genetic diversity at the population level. some refugia may be located in mts. dabieshan (jz), huangshan (hs) and changbaishan (qs), and these populations may all expand or immigrate to southward or(and)northward via mts. taihangshan and dabieshan-tongbaishan during the intreglacial/glacial cycles. mts. qinling and nanling have important effects on the haplotype’s pattern of a. carmichaeli var. carmichaeli. 5. the results indicated that the chuanwu had very low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation. chuanwu could have originated from at least two places twice. range expansion of the original plants was likely the main genetic differentiation model for the formation of genuine character of chuanwu.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/16084
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何俊. 乌头多倍体复合群的分子谱系地理学--兼论川乌的起源 [D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2010.
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