几种秋海棠属植物形态学和种质资源保护研究
杨丽华
学位类型硕士
导师管开云
2010-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位专业植物学
摘要秋海棠属(Begonia L.)是秋海棠科(Begoniaceae)植物。国产秋海棠大多分布于长江以南,主要集中在云南的东南部和广西的西南部,少数种类分布于北方。本文在对紫叶秋海棠(B. purpureofolia)和假厚叶秋海棠(B. pseudodryadis)进行野外资源调查的基础上,对20余种秋海棠属植物进行了引种,开展了种子萌发、种子贮藏、离体保存植株的DNA含量分析、种子形态和花粉形态等方面的初步研究。不仅为该研究领域累积了科学资料,而且为秋海棠属植物资源的有效保护和合理开发利用奠定了基础。获得的主要研究结果如下:1. 形态学,(1) 扁果组植物种子的形态具有较高的多样性,主要体现在盖状物形状和大小方面。种子形态在侧膜组中表现出较好的一致性,可以作为区分组的依据之一。种皮形态在种内较为稳定,对于区分种有一定的借鉴意义。(2) 国产秋海棠属植物花粉的变异主要在于花粉大小和外壁纹饰。条纹状纹饰是秋海棠属植物花粉外壁最常见的纹饰,凹穴状纹饰也很常见,皱折状纹饰比较少见。尽管花粉形态在分组上的意义不明显,但对于区分种、鉴定新种有一定的参考价值。推断秋海棠属花粉大小的演化趋势为由中等大小的花粉分别向大和小两个方向演化。2. 种质资源保护: (1) 濒危等级确认,经调查,紫叶秋海棠仅有三个居群,假厚叶秋海棠仅有两个居群,二者的种群的成熟个体数量均少于2500,不存在成熟个体超过250的亚种群。根据IUCN物种红色名录濒危等级和标准3.1版ENC2a(ⅰ),应将二者列为濒危物种EN (Endangered)。(2) 引种栽培, 从野外引种了紫叶秋海棠、假厚叶秋海棠等20余种秋海棠属植物。调查了紫叶秋海棠和假厚叶秋海棠的野外生境特点,并对二者的土壤理化性质进行了分析。总结了引种种类的生长状况,并简要小结了紫叶秋海棠和假厚叶秋海棠的栽培管理方法,从而获得了一定的栽培管理经验。(3) 种子萌发和贮藏特性研究, 本研究探讨了13种秋海棠在不同温度下的萌发特性,并通过设置不同的贮藏温度(室温、4℃、-20℃)和贮藏时间(30d、60d、90d、180d)对3种秋海棠进行了贮藏特性的研究。结果表明:大部分秋海棠种子的萌发率在不同的温度下没有显著差异,在25℃条件下萌发较为整齐。室温和4℃为种子短期贮藏的理想温度,贮藏在-20℃下的种子萌发率随着贮藏时间的延长而显著降低。(4) 遗传稳定性检测, 采用流式细胞仪,对3种离体培养10余年的秋海棠属植物的DNA含量进行了测定。结果表明:掌叶秋海棠的DNA含量发生了非整倍性变化,离体培养材料的DNA含量是保存在温室中材料的1.5倍,其它两种秋海棠的DNA含量无明显变化。
资助项目Begonia L. belongs to the family Begoniaceae. Begonia species in China are mostly distributed S of Yangtze River, particularly concentrated in SE Yunnan and SW Guangxi, with only a few extended into N China. The thesis includes investigation and introduction of the genus Begonia from SE Yunnan and SW Guangxi. Preliminary studies on seed germination, seed storage characteristics, DNA content analysis of in vitro conservation Begonia species, seed morphology and pollen morphology were conducted. The main results were summarized as follows:1. Morphology,⑴ Seed morphological study, Seeds of three species of the Chinese Begonia Sect. Coelocentrum and ten species of Sect. Platycentrum were studied. The result showed that there was higher consistency in Sect. Coelocentrum and the seeds morphology had certain value at sectional level. In addition, the Chinese Begonia Sect. Platycentrum had high diversities in seed micromorphology especially in the aspect of the shape of operculum and the size of seed. The seed morphology of the same species showed steady characters.⑵ Pollen morphological study, Pollen of 21 Chinese Begonia species was examined. The results showed that striate was the most commonplace exine sculpture pattern among Begonia as well as punctuate, rarely rugose. Although the pollen morphology did not show its importance to the taxonomy at sectional level of the genus Begonia, it showed some value to some specific treatment. Our study also suggested that the species with middle pollens in Begonia could be more primitive, while the species with smaller or larger ones might be much advanced.2. Conservation of germplasm resources,⑴ Conservation status, There are only three populations of B. purpureofolia and two populations of B. pseudodryadis according to investigation. The total mature individuals ofthe two species are less than 2500 and no subpopulation estimated to contain more than 250 mature individuals. Based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (Version 3.1), the conservation status of B. purpureofolia and B. pseudodryadis is ranged as Endangered. ⑵ Introduction and cultivation, The species were collected mainly from SE Yunnan and SW Guangxi. Living environment, growing conditions, physical and chemical characters of soil samples of B. purpureofolia and B. pseudodryadis were studied. Then the suitable condition was obtained to cultivate the two species.⑶ Seed germination and storage characteristics, The effect of temperature on seed germination of thirteen Begonia species were studied. The results of the test were as follows: temperature had no significant effect on seed germination percentage on most of the studied Begonia species but had a significant effect on mean germination time (MGT). Storage characteristics of three species of Begonia were studied by setting different storage temperatures (ambient temperature, 4℃ and -20℃) and storage periods (30d, 60d, 90d and 180d). The results showed that the seeds storage in ambient temperature and 4℃ had higher germination percentage than -20℃. ⑷ Assessment of genetic stability, Flow Cytometry (FCM) analysis was used to assess the genetic stability in three Begonia species which were maintained in vitro for a period of over 10 years. The results showed that no significant variation in the nuclear DNA contents of B. cathayana and B. pseudodryadis. However, long-term in vitro maintenance induced aneuploid change in nuclear DNA contents in B. hemsleyana.
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.kib.ac.cn/handle/151853/16040
专题昆明植物所硕博研究生毕业学位论文
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杨丽华. 几种秋海棠属植物形态学和种质资源保护研究[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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